Chapter 19 The Aftermath of World War I

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Kellogg-Briand Pact
An agreement oringally signed in 1928 between 15 nations outlawing war; eventually 49 other nations joined the pact; had no way of enforcing peace.
Trench Warfare
Form of fighting whereby two sides fight each other from opposing trenches.
Central Powers
Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire.
Great War
Alternate name for World War I.
System of Alliances
A series of treaties requiring a country to give military assistance to another country if it were to be attacked by a third country.
Propaganda
Information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation, etc.
Stalemate
A situation in which no progress can be made or no advancement is possible.
Washington Naval Conference
1921 - President harding invited delegates from Europe and Japan, and they agreed to limit production of war ships, to not attack each other's possessions, and to respect China's independence.
Conscription
Drafting of civilians to serve in the army.
Isolationism
The policy or doctrine of isolating one's country from the affairs of other nations by declining to enter into alliances, foreign economic commitments, international agreements, etc., seeking to devote the entire efforts of one's country to its own advancement and remain at peace by avoiding foreign entanglements and responsibilities.
Conscientious Objectors
Those who opposed participating in military service because of religious,philosophical,or political belief.
Schenk v.s. United States
(1919), was a United States Supreme Court decision that upheld the Espionage Act of 1917 and concluded that a defendant did not have a First Amendment right to freedom of speech against the draft during World War I.
U-Boat
German submarine.
14 Points Plan
Woodrow Wilson's peace plan, set out before war ended, helped bring it to and end because it helped Germans look forward to peace and be willing to surrender, was easy on the germans punishment for war. Points included: poeple all over the world are to determine their own fate, (self-determination) no colonial powers grabbing nations, free trade, no secret pacts, freedom of the seas, arms reduction, creation of world orginization/League of Nations.
Mustard Gas
A toxic war gas with sulfide based compounds that raises blisters and attacks the eyes and lungs.
Irreconciables
This faction in the U. S. Senate would not accept the League of Nations or the notion of collective security in any form. Led by Senators William Borah (Idaho) and Hiram Johnson (California). Also know as the "Battalion of Death".
League of Nations
International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s.
Reparations
As part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the U.S., it quickly lead to a severe depression in Germany., or Payment for damages after a war.
Treaty of Versailles
The treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans.
Armistice
A state of peace agreed to between opponents so they can discuss peace terms.
Dog-Fights
Engage in an aerial battle with another fighter plane.
Doughboys
A nickname for the inexperienced but fresh American soldiers during World War I.
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