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material after exam 4
Terms in this set (72)
what is basic research
underlying mechanisms responsible for behavior "why do people do what they do"
specific problem the researcher wants to change (i.e. improve health habits, reduce prejudice)
why does social psych work
many theories about human behavior
well practiced using the experimental methods to assess
-effectiveness of interventions
-risk of interventions
-potential solutions to social problems
climate changing is causing an abundance of negative effects in our environment such as melting ice sheets, rising sea levels, hurricanes, etc. what is the cause of this?
too many people and their consumption habits
how can we dress the population? 3 options.
slow down population growth (slowing slightly)
count on technology to bail us out (solar or wind power)
get people to change their consumption habits to use fewer resources (changing attitudes)
three ways to change attitudes
behaviorally, cognitively, affectively
using cognitive dissonance (pointing out hypocracy)
using the yale attitude change (in terms of experts)
fear arousing communications
behavioral attitudes: researchers wanted to encourage people to take shorter showers. what kind of method did they use?
-induced hypocrisy (took short survey that made them mindful of when they waste water)
-had participants make a public commitment (signed their names to a public poster saying they would use less water)
result of shower study:
sign poster + survey = LEAST consumption
don't sign + no survey = MOST consumption
cognitive attitudes: experts or attractive people. what is the nature of the message?
make it seem like you aren't trying to influence people and present a two sided argument and refute the opposing arguments
when are people the most persuadable?
emotional attitudes: what are fear arousing communications?
increase in severity of tropical storms, droughts, weather extremes
loss of many species
loss of major coastal cities
what must emotional attitudes also include?
what actions people can take or it wont be effective
two types of environmental dilemmas:
social dilemma and commons dilemma
what is good or one is not good for many/all
everyone takes from a common pool which become depleted
how to solve social dilemmas
create trust between groups or individuals through commnication
what else can we do?
change the norms for our group (easier with a friend)
make issues vivid
changing norms: descriptive
what we do: model green behavior
changing norms: injunctive norms
what people are supposed to do: make rules, express disapproval
how to convey and change social norms
invoke descriptive norms
example of invoking descriptive norms
Littering. clean up all the litter in an environment that relays the message "no one litters here"
interesting exception to littering example
seeing a piece of trash in an otherwise clean area reminded people more strongly of norms against littering
LOWEST percentage of littering occurred in room where one piece of litter was found. HIGHEST percentage occurred in room that was fully littered
what else can we do?
keep track of consumption
remove small barriers
keeping track of consumption:
leads to reduction in use
providing social comparison information can greatly affect behaviors (i.e. competition btwn dorm floors)
remove smaller barriers:
in places where recycling bins are provided by the city, more people recycle
can money buy happiness?
as US GNP has increased, life satisfaction has stayed same
people who are materialistic are less happy than those who are not
actual predictors of happiness
satisfying relationships (ppl you can talk to and share problems)
doing something you love (get lost in state of flow)
helping others (enhance social relationships and feel like a good person)
people's attitudes toward recycling
peoples attitudes only predicted behavior only whn they did NOT possess a recycling bin. when there was a barrier preventing easy compliance, only those with positive attitudes made the effort to circumvent the barrier. when there was no barrier (container provided by country) attitudes didn't matter as much
people's specific plans about where, when, and how they will fulfill a goal
money and chocolate experiment
people who saw pictures of money ate the chocolate faster and gave it a lower rating
people who saw neutral pictures took longer to eat the chocolate and gave it a higher rating
the extent to which people can predict the intensity and duration of their emotional reactions to future events
people tend to strive for _________ and overlook______
things are unlikely to make them happy (money) and overlook things that will actually make them happy (spending time with loved ones)
people do not engage in criminal activity because of legal punishment
deterrence theory only works if
the punishment is severe, certain, and swift
the US crime rate has gone down, but why? (two ideas)
-some day stiffer penalties deter crime
-others suggest population of adolescents and young adults (who are most responsible for violent crimes) has been declining in the past few years
how does the death penalty affect murder rates?
judgments about the fairness of procedures used to determine outcomes
people will obey the law if
they think it is just, even if it is unlikely that they will be caught for breaking it
if an eyewitness testifies that you are the culprit, what is the most likely outcome?
conviction even if there is considerable circumstantial evidence that indicates you are innocent
in 75% of false convictions, what was the conviction based on
faulty eyewitness identification
Eyewitness memories: acquiring memory =
process where people notice and pay attention to information
issues that can affect acquistion
poor viewing conditions
people focus on weapons
we see what we expect
own race bias (better at recognizing faces of own race)
eyewitness memories: memory storage =
how people store information they gleaned from environment
distortion of memories after an event based on later information
how can misleading questions affect memory
cause problems with source monitoring, or figuring out the source of a memory
cause people to report erroneous "facts"
eyewitness memories: memory retrieval =
how people recall information stored in their memories
memory retrieval usage?
when using lineups, witness use a "best guess" strategy, picking the person that is closest
what should be avoided in line ups?
best guess by using similar people, presenting pictures sequentially (not simultaneously)
what should detectives NOT have witnesses do
verbalize what face looks like because it impairs memory for the face
when witnesses respond quickly,
they are more likely to be correct
certainly does not equal _____
are polygraphs a good tool to tell if someone is lying?
NO! only 86% accurate
have we found a good way to improve eyewitness testimony?
false memory syndrome:
remembering a past traumatic experience that is objectively false but nevertheless accepted as true
why do people make false confessions?
when interrogation process goes wrong that can elicit false confessions, even to the point where the innocent suspect comes to believe that they actually committed the crime
one problem is that police investigations..
are often convinced that the suspect is guilty, and this belief biases how they conduct interrogation
can investigators lie to suspects?
what else can cause false confessions?
one solution to coerced confessions
video recorded interrogations
two ways lawyers present evidence
present evidence in the sequence in which the events that occurred, corresponding as closely as possible to the story they want jurors to believe
they present witnesses in the sequence they think will have the greatest impact, even if this means that events are described out of order (most convincing witness last)
if you are being charged for a crime, what type of order should your lawyer use to get you released
why must the courts push for unanimity
makes juries consider evidence more carefully
members with minority opinions do not change verdict, but can change opinion about level of guilt
what size juries are best? why?
large; smaller juries reduce probability of members from minority groups and it is easier to stick to opinion if you have an ally
how can you tell whether a witness's memory is accurate?
pay careful attention to how confident the witness is
is a witness's confidence always the true, clear cut answer?
no, it is not always a good indicator.
jury deliberation is typically stacked toward..
the initial majority opinion
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