Adolescent Psychology Quiz 2
Terms in this set (57)
A stereotyped pattern of role prescriptions for how individuals should behave in sexual contexts. Females and males have been socialized to follow different sexual scripts.
Someone who self-identifies as lesbian, gay, or bisexual
A person who is attracted to people of both sexes
Irrational negative feelings against individuals who have same-sex attractions
Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)
Infections that are contracted primarily through sexual contact. This contact is not limited to vaginal intercourse but includes oral-genital contact and anal-genital contact as well.
Stands for acquired immune deficiency syndrome, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which destroys the body's immune system
A sexually transmitted infection caused by a large family of viruses of diﬀerent strains. These strains produce other, nonsexually transmitted diseases such as chicken pox and mononucleosis
An STI caused by the human papillomavirus; genital warts are very contagious and are the most commonly acquired STI in the United States in the 15- to 24-year-old age group
A sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium
which thrives in the moist mucous membranes lining the mouth, throat, vagina, cervix, urethra, and anal tract. This STI is commonly called the "drip" or the "clap."
A sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium
One of the most common sexually transmitted infections, named for
Chlamydia trachomatis, an organism that spreads by sexual contact and infects the genital organs of both sexes
Forcible sexual intercourse with a person who does not give consent
Date Rape/Acquaintance Rape
Coercive sexual activity directed at someone whom the perpetrator knows.
Quid Pro Quo Sexual Harrassment
Sexual harassment in which a school employee threatens to base an educational decision (such as a grade) on a student's submission to unwelcome sexual conduct
Hostile Environment Sexual Harrassment
Sexual harassment in which students are subjected to unwelcome sexual conduct that is so severe, persistent, or pervasive that it limits the students' ability to beneﬁt from their education
Thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding standards of right and wrong
The lowest level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. At this level, morality is often focused on reward and punishment. The two stages in preconventional reasoning are punishment and obedience orientation (stage 1) and individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange (stage 2).
The second, or intermediate, level in Kohlberg's theory. Individuals abide by certain standards (internal), but they are the standards of others (external), such as parents or the laws of society. The conventional level consists of two stages: mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity (stage 3) and social systems morality (stage 4).
The third level and highest level in Kohlberg's theory. At this level, morality is more internal. The postconventional level consists of two stages: social contract or utility and individual rights (stage 5) and universal ethical principles (stage 6).
A moral perspective that focuses on the rights of the individual. Individuals make moral decisions independently.
The moral perspective of Carol Gilligan, which views people in terms of their connectedness with others and emphasizes interpersonal communication, relationships with others, and concern for others.
Social Cognition Theory of Moral Development
The theory that distinguishes between moral competence (the ability to produce moral behaviors) and moral performance (enacting those behaviors in specific situations).
Unselfish interest in helping another person
An aspect of prosocial behavior that occurs when an injured person releases the injurer from possible behavioral retaliation
A feeling of thankfulness and appreciation, especially in response to someone doing something kind or helpful
The component of the superego that involves ideal standards approved by parents
The component of the superego that involves behaviors disapproved by the parents
Reaction to another's feelings with an emotional response that is similar to the other's feelings
An aspect of personality that is present when individuals have moral notions and commitments that are central to their lives.
People who have lived exemplary lives
Domain Theory of Moral Development
Theory that identifies different domains of social knowledge and reasoning, including moral, social conventional, and personal domains. There domains arise from children's and adolescents' attempts to understand and deal with different forms of social experience
Social Conventional Reasoning
Thoughts about social consensus and convention, as opposed to moral reasoning that stresses ethical issues
A discipline technique in which a parent withholds attention or love from the adolescent
A discipline technique in which a parent attempts to gain control over the adolescent or the adolescents resources
A discipline technique in which a parent uses reason and explains how the adolescent's actions affect others
The pervasive moral atmosphere that characterizes every school
A direct moral education approach that involves teaching students a basic moral literacy to prevent them from engaging in immoral behavior or doing harm to themselves or others
An educational approach that focuses on helping people clarify what is important to them, what is worth working for, and their purpose in life. Students are encouraged to define their own values and understand others' values
Cognitive Moral Education
An approach based on the belief that students should learn to value things like democracy and justice as their moral reasoning develops; Kohlberg's theory has been the basis for many of the cognitive moral education approaches
A form of education that promotes social responsibility and service to the community
Beliefs and attitude about the way things should be
An organized set of beliefs, practices, rituals, and symbols that increases an individual's connection to a sacred or transcendent other (God, higher power, or higher truth)
The degree of affiliation with an organized religion, participation in prescribed rituals and practices, connection with its beliefs, and involvement in a community of believers
Experiencing something beyond oneself in a transcendent manner and living in a way that benefits others and society
The process by which children and adolescents socialize parents, just as parents socialize them
Multiple Development Trajectories
Concept that adults follow one trajectory and children and adolescents another one; how these trajectories mesh is important
A restrictive, punitive style in which the parent exhorts the adolescent to follow the parent's directions and to respect work and effort. Firm limits and controls are placed on the adolescent, and little verbal exchange is allowed. This style is associated with adolescents' socially incompetent behavior
A style encouraging adolescents to be independent but still placing limits and controls on their actions. Extensive verbal give-and-take is allowed, and parents are warm and nurturant toward the adolescent. This style is associated with adolescents' socially competent behavior
A style in which the parent is very uninvolved in the adolescent's life. It is associated with adolescents' social incompetence, especially a lack of self-control
A style in which parents are highly involved with their adolescents but place few demands or controls on them. This is associated with adolescents' social incompetence, especially a lack of self-control
The capacity to relinquish childlike dependence on parents
Attachment pattern in which infants use their primary caregiver, usually the mother, as a secure base from which to explore the environment. Secure attachment is theorized to be an important foundation for psychological development later in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood
Attachment pattern in which infants either avoid the caregiver or show considerable resistance or ambivalence toward the caregiver. This pattern is theorized to be related to difficulties in relationships and problems in later development
An insecure attachment category in which individuals deemphasize the importance of attachment. This category is associated with consistent experiences of rejection of attachment needs by caregivers
An insecure attachment category in which adolescents are hyperattuned to attachment experiences. This is thought mainly to occur because parents are inconsistently available to the adolescent
An insecure category in which the adolescent has an unusually high level of fear and is disoriented. This can result from traumatic experiences such as a parent's death or abuse by parents
The uncertainty in stepfamilies about who is in or out of the family and who is performing or responsible for certain tasks in the family system
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