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Earth Science


the thin and solid outer most layer of the earth above the mantle


The layer of rock between the earths crust and core

Inner Core

it is solid, dense and extends from bottom of outer core to center of the earth

Outer Core

a layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core of Earth

Rock Cycle

the process by which one rock type changes into another rock type

Igneous Rock

rock that forms from the cooling of magma or lava


molten rock beneath the earth's surface


magma that flows onto the Earth's surface

Sedimentary Rock

a type of rock, such as limestone, that is most likely to contain fossils and is formed when layers of sand, silt, clay, or mud are cemented and compacted together or when minerals are deposited from a solution


the process that breaks down rocks and other substances at the Earth's surface, The breaking down of rocks and other materials on the Earth's surface.


The process by which wind, water, ice, or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another

Metamorphic Rock

A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or, chemical reactions.


loose materials, such as rock fragments,mineral grains, and the remains of once-living plants and animals, that have been moved by wind, water, ice, or gravity.


A naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals or organic matter


change of form


A resource that we will not run out of or that can be replaced in our lifetime


a resource that forms at a much slower rate then the rate that is is consumed

solar energy

sunlight that is converted into usable energy

biomass fuel

Fuel that derives from plant material and animal waste

geothermal energy

energy derived from the heat in the interior of the earth


a mineral from which one or more metals can be profitably obtained

fossil fuel

a nonrenewable energy resource formed from the remains of organisms that lived long ago; examples include oil, coal, and natural gas


liquid fossil fuel formed from marine organisms that is burned to obtain energy and used in the manufacture of plastics


fossil fuel consisting of carbonized vegetable matter deposited in the Carboniferous period

natural gas

A mixture of hydrocarbon gases that occur with petroleum deposits


the use of the kinetic energy in moving water such as rivers or tidal currents to generate electricity

tidal energy

The energy captured by transforming the wave motion of water into electrical energy using a turbine

wind energy

The energy captured by transforming the motion of air into electrical energy using a turbine

hydrogen fuel cell

a cell that generates electricity from a controlled reaction between hydrogen and oxygen, the waste material is water

NJ Energy most common

1= coal 2= nuclear

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