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Terms in this set (36)

Ataturk was a Ottoman military commander who went on to be the first president of Turkey. After regaining Turkish sovereignty from the Allied powers through military campaigns and negotiations, he began to focus on molding the new Turkey into an image of the West by instilling his Kemalism program. This program embarked upon political, economic, and cultural reforms in order to establish a new Turkey that was independent from its previous relation to the Ottomans. Also, Ataturk was determined to make Turkey a secular state that was regulated by humans and not the divine spirit. Similar to the reforms seen by Sultan Mahmud II through the Tanzimat era.
- "Father of the Turks"
- Changes the capital to Ankara to recognize the new country with a new capital, powerful move
- Sole party in the State, RPP, Republican People's Party
- Nationalist , Quran to Turkish, adopt a Swiss code w/Italian + German ideas, no more Shari'ah
-• (Start of Kemalism Open to innovation, accept nonviolent change, popular sovereignty was the engine for the Turks
• Turkey was westernizing under him, abolished the fez hat of the president, translated the Quran to Turkish, people adopted the Italian and the German codes, the swiss w those countries, no Shari'ah
• Prayers had to be in Turkish
• He wanted to use secularism to reduce the influence of Islamic Organizations on political and social life, wanted to develop the civil society on human legislation with scope for religious observance, didn't want religion to affect people's thinking
• Created the language of Turkish
• Populism and nationalism was combined for educational expansion, he established the principle of free and compulsory elementary education
• Encouraged Feminism, female judges
• Etatism - state capitalism - construction of large scale textile and steel plants , industries as paper, glass, and cement factories, (unsuccessful with the mechanization limited)
• No need to expand )End of Kemalism
He was the second president of Egypt and helped overthrow the monarchy in the mid 1950s. He enacted far-reaching nationalization and modernization reforms.
-• Free Officers, revolution of 1952, seized control of the government
• Lived with various parents, without his mom and dad, attended law schools before entering the Egyptian military academy
• Wanted to avenge the disaster of 1948, losing to the Palestine due to the corruption of King Faruq, the civilian politicians, and certain figures in the high command
• No views on political organization, wanted to overthrow British: destruction of British colonialism, removal of its Egyptian collaborators, elimination of feudalism, the ending of the political control of the state by foreign capital, the establishment of social justice, the formation of a strong national army, and the creation of a healthy democratic life
• 1953, after overthrowing King Faruq, Egypt becomes a republic
• Abolishes the old constitution, dissolves the parliament and bans all of the political parties
• Nasser = minister of the interior RCC (Revolutionary Command Council), this is important, they take over the whole Egypt
• Prohibits anyone from 1946-1952 who had held public office to do so again
• Their rivals were the Muslim Brotherhood , Nasser was attempted to be assassinated, so, they outlawed the brotherhood, executed six of its leaders
• Passes a constitution, it gets approved and he becomes president
• Agreement w/Czechoslovakia to purchase 200$ million worth of advanced military equipment in exchange for Egyptian cotton - he gets rejected when he originally approached the West for Arms
• Nationalizes the Suez Canal making it a problem for the British and French who were so reliant - "Suez Crisis"
• The French , British, and Israelis make a secret agreement for joint action to overthrow Nasser and attack, after a few days of the attack, United States and the Soviet Union put this down. Egypt comes out on top. They have possession of the Suez Canal
• Becomes a hero! Stands up for Egypt against massive powers
• Pan Arabism, "Egypt is an Arab country, part of the Arab Nation", intervenes in the affairs of other Arab States
• Social equality, Social Arabism
• Even though Revisionism lost much of its force with Jabotinsky's death, he later became Israeli prime minister and revived the uncompromising Zionism of his former leader
• Israeli troops crossed the border into Lebanon in 1982, in three months, the Israeli defense forces engaged units of the PLO and placed an Arab City, Beirut and killed hundreds of Lebanese and Palestinian Civilians
• He wanted to annex the occupied West Bank
• Believed that if he could drive PLO from Lebanon, Palestinians in the West Bank would be isolated and susceptible to Israeli annexation
• The Lebanese government was weak, inviting the Israeli attention
• PLO - due to the weak government, assumed a degree of administrative autonomy in a belt that stretched to the Israeli border, this was the belt that the Israeli government wanted to destroy
• At first, Israeli troops invade Lebanon , but doesn't effect to dislodge the PLO from its strongholds
• Israel was pressured by UN and US to withdraw troops, United Nations Interim Forces were installed in southern Lebanon for peace
• New plan's objectives: destruction of the PLO as a fighting force , withdrawal of the Syrian occupying troops, forging of a mutually advantageous alliance with the dominant Maronite faction (faction was led by Bashir Gemayel)
• Bashir would establish table and cooperative government in Beirut and leave Israel with a free hand in the occupied territories
• Israel launched invasion in 1982, "Peace for Galilee" , stated purpose was to destruct the PLO bases in southern Lebanon, but they really wanted to destroy the PLO infrastructure in West Beirut and have Bashir elected as the president of Lebanon
• This concerned the world, strong reaction against invasion, many bombardments causing heavy casualties
• Agreement of PLO withdrawing its forces in West Beirut, called for France and U.S to supervise PLO leaving
• Israel violates the evacuation agreement because Gemayel was assassinated two weeks after his presidency
• Israeli military allowed Phalange to enter the Palestinian refugee camps of Sabra and Shatila and massacre over 1000 people
• Begin's political career is destroyed by the Lebanon war
- The Arab defeat at the hands of Israel led to new rulers, becomes the president of Syria in 1967-2000
- Authoritarian regime, basing power on military and the Ba'th Party
- Socialist economic policies, egalitarian reform
- Joins the Ba'th Party at the age of sixteen and becomes an organizer, disappointed with Nasser wanting to remove the party, wants to revive it
- Forged an alliance between individuals of rural origins and the lower middle class urbanites (teachers, univ students) to restructure the Syrian political elite
- People's council , elected assembly, but Constitution gives him enormous powers to not
- Had a member issue a decree stating that Alawites (his origin) were Muslims because presidents had to be Muslims
- Head of state, head of party, appointed relatives and associates to ruling hierarchy
-Educated students into Ba'thist ideology, obedience to authority, and the principles of the party, people had to conform to rules of the correct political behavior to advance
- Social reforms: female equality, legislate equal rights and privileges for women, they served as representatives and entered professions
- Made it so that Syria was in a position to ensure that no Arab-Israeli peace settlement could be negotiated without Syria's participation and that any peace proposals that might emerge from other parties could be sabotaged by Syrian action. He was able to do this by increasing the military quantity and quality asking Soviet Union for weapons and spending 20% of Gross national product on mil. expenditures