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Bio 183 practice final
Terms in this set (68)
Regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes can take place at which of the following levels
The Lac operon is best described by which of the following
3 genes encoding for lactose metabolism, located downstream of regulatory subunits that either promote or repress their expression, based on lactose and glucose availability
The lac operon is important in which of the following
helps bacteria utilize lactose preferentially over glucose
Retroviruses such as HIV are different from other DNA viruses in that
they contain the enzyme reverse transcriptase
Prions, such as the mad cow disease-causing infectious agents are made of
What enzyme do viruses utilize in order integrate their genetic material into their host's genome?
Unlike viruses, bacteria
reproduce on their own
Bacteria have the ability to acquire genetic diversity through
mutations and genetic transfer
Bacteria use a sex pilus in order to
exchange plasmid DNA through sexual reproduction
The type of asexual reproduction in which offsprings develop from an unfertilized egg is called
Sequential hermaphroditism occurs in
sex-changing fish such as clown fish
Sperm cells are derived from
spermatogonia, through meiosis
By producing testosterone, testes exert a negative feedback on the production of which hormones by the anterior pituitary gland?
Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Mammalian such as humans display a type of egg-laying method known as
During oogenesis, one diploid oogonium (2n) produces
Fertilization in mammals occurs in the:
Fallopian tubes (oviduct)
Which of the following is the hormone secreted during labor under the stimulus of high estrogen levels and stretch receptor activation?
Animals that develop 3 tissue layers are...
triploblastic, and the layers are the endoderm, the mesoderm, and the ectoderm
Groups of cells that release factors involved in the shaping of the developing embryo (like Spemann's organizer) are referred to as
Amino acids are made of which of the following?
a carboxyl group, an amino group, a central carbon, and a side chain
Polymers of macromolecules (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) are all synthesized from monomers by which process?
Which of the following is not a polysaccharide?
Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids differ in which of the following
saturated fatty acids have straight carbon chains, whereas unsaturated fatty acids have kinks in their carbon chains
Which of the following macromolecules is least likely to be found in the plasma membrane
Vesicles destined for exocytosis are typically derived from
The cis-side of the golgi apparatus
Motor proteins such as kinesin are able to carry cargo inside the cell
By moving along microtubules in a walking-like fashion
cytoskeletons have multiple functions in cells. which of the following is not a cytoskeletal function?
generating energy intermediates
Certain organisms have an unusually high percentage of saturated fatty acids in their plasma membrane. For this reason
They are able to withstand high temperatures because their plasma membranes are firmer
An cell that lacks glycoproteins on its external surface is inserted into human host. This cell is likely to be
A flower that is left in fresh water for several hours becomes stiff and hard, whereas the same flower placed in a 10% saline solution wilts. From this observation, we can deduce that the cells of the flower's stem are
Hypotonic to the water, but hypertonic to the saline solution
Which of the following best describes osmosis?
simple diffusion of water across a permeable membrane
Transmembrane carriers that bind two or more molecules and transport them in the same direction are called ___________, while transmembrane carriers that bind two or more molecules and transport them in opposite directions are called ___________.
A hypothetic cell whose plasma membrane is made of a phospholipid bilayer only (no channels or anything of that sort) is placed in a solution of 10mM starch. The intracellular starch concentration is 100mM. What would you expect to observe?
Water would move in the cell by osmosis
Enzymes catalyze chemical reactions by
Lowering the activation energy necessary to start the reaction
During the glycolysis part of cellular respiration, net energy is harvested in the form of
Which of the following is/are waste products of aerobic cellular respiration?
What energy intermediate is/are reduced during the citric acid cycle?
during aerobic cellular respiration, oxydative phosphorylation takes place in which of the following?
the inner mitochondrial membrane
During aerobic cell respiration, the final electron acceptor at the end of the electron transport chain is:
Which of the following reagents are required for photosynthesis?
During photosynthesis, which of the following molecules donates electrons to photosystem II, in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts?
During photosynthesis, the free energy released in photosystem I is used to drive which of the following reactions:
production of NADPH
In the Calvin cycle, energy is used for which purpose?
drive the conversion of carbon dioxide into glucose
The major advantage of using cAMP in the intracellular pathway, downstream of G-protein-coupled receptors is:
amplification of the original signal, and increased reaction speed
Which of the following best describes G-proteins
receptor-associated, intracellular protein complexes composed of α, β, and γ subunits
In neurons, the distribution of sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) ions across the cell membrane is
high [Na+] outside the cell, low [Na+] inside the cell - low [K+] outside the cell, high [K+] inside the cell
The advantage of saltatory conduction of action potentials along myelinated axons, as opposed to conduction along non-myelinated axons is:
Sister chromatids move to opposite poles of a dividing cell during
Which phase of meoisis is being described by the following sentence? Homologous chromosomes move toward opposite poles of the cell.
A typical cell cycle is composed of the following phases, in the following order:
G1, S, G2, M
Homozygous dominant (ex: TT) and heterozygous (ex: Tt) genotypes for a particular trait display the same phenotype. In order to determine the genotype of an unknown individual with dominant phenotype (i.e. TT or Tt), one would do which of the following:
do a testcross
A cross between true-breeding large butterflies and true breeding small butterflies results in an F1 generation of 100% medium-sized butterflies. This would be an example of:
The different blood types seen in humans are a good example of
In some gene interactions, the masking of the expression of one gene by another gene is referred to as
Extranuclear inheritance refers to the inheritance of genes located on chromosomes that are found in
mitochondria and chloroplasts
Barr bodies originate from of the following?
The pyrimidines found in DNA are
Thymine and cytosine
DNA replication was shown by Meselson and Stahl to follow a
The two complementary and antiparallel strands of DNA in the double helix are kept together by
Hydrogen bonds between DNA bases
Okazaki fragments are linked together by which of the following enzymes?
Telomeres comprise a 3' overhang that is made of
a short, repetitive, non-coding sequence of nucleotides
DNA is wrapped around specific proteins known as
Transcription and translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes differ in the following:
Eukaryotes make a pre-mRNA that needs to me processed before translation
The DNA strand that is complementary to the template strand (from which mRNA is made) is called
The coding strand
SnRNPs, or "snurps" are proteins that
splice introns out of pre-mRNA
Which of the following molecules is responsible for bringing the correct amino acid into ribosomes during translation
Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases are extremely specific enzymes. Without this high level of specificity,
amino acid sequences in polypeptides would often be incorrect
Which of the following is common to both DNA and RNA structures?
a sugar-phosphate backbone
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