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Semester 2 Final- Terms

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Aerial/Atmospheric Perspective
As seen in the background of the Mona Lisa, this method of creating depth (developed in Western art history By Da Vinci) uses paler, bluer colors to communicate depth.
Chiaroscuro
Seen here in Caravaggio's "Calling of St. Matthew," this technique, often used by Da Vinci, uses very dark and very light values to create form.
Composition
The way the elements of a work of art are arranged
Counterreformation
This movement was the response of Catholicism to the protestant reformation and it is evident in the artwork of Mannerism and its view to establish the grandeur of the Church
Early Renaissance
This was the beginning of a movement of rebirth beginning in Florence with a contest to design a portal for the Florence Cathedral. This period included Donatello and Botticelli
Florence
In the fifteenth century, Italy was not a unified country, but separate city-states. Florence was the birthplace of the Renaissance
Genre Painting
A painting of everday life
High Renaissance
The peak of the rebirth of studying art and culture of Ancient Rome and Greece. This period included artists like Da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo and Brunelleschi. Important philosophies included humanism and neoplatonism
Humanism
A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
Linear Perspective
A mathematical system for creating the illusion of space and distance on a flat surface. The system originated in Florence, Italy in the early 1400s and was developed by Brunelleschi
Mannerism
A movement that took its inspiration from Michelangelo and the sense of awe and majesty created in his works. Characterized an emphasis on crowded, theatrical compositions and rather than emotion and reality. Major artists include Tintoretto, El Greco and Caravaggio
Medici
The family in power in Florence during the Renaissance, important patrons (sponsors) of the arts, especially Lorenzo
Michelangelo
An artist of the High and Late Renaissance and inspiration to Mannerism, this artist was known for sculpture and an emphasis on musculature. He was torn between the ideals of the Renaissance and his faith
Mural
A piece painted directly on to a wall
Northern Renaissance
A movement that developed both separately and with influence from the Italian Renaissance that comprised innovation and developments in the art and culture of Northern Europe, especially in Belgium and Holland. The center was Flanders
Oil Paint
Paint pigments mixed in a viscous, slow-drying oil medium which dries by oxidation and blends easily. It can be used as a glaze or a heavy impasto. It was especially important in Northern Europe where the climate wouldn't allow media like frescoes to dry properly
Protestant Reformation
16th century series of religious actions which led to establishment of the Protestant churches. Led by Martin Luther, this movement rejected the authority of the Catholic church and maintained that salvation was only through faith in God and could not be earned. These ideas are evident in the artwork of the Northern Renaissance
Sfumato
"Smoky" changes in value and color rather than an emphasis on sharply defined lines
Tondo
A circular painting or relief sculpture.
Baroque
-1600's into early 1700's
-Often chaotic compositions
-Often diagonal compositions
-Drama
Chiaroscuro
Light and dark values to create form in a dramatic way
Tenebrism
Similar to chiaroscuro, extreme dark, with light highlights. A.K.A. Caravaggism
Protestant Reformation
The rejection of the Catholic Church and its teaching that you have to be good enough to go to Heaven. Martin Luther objected to that idea based on scriptures that teach that only faith justifies us before God.
Triptych
A work of art that is divided into three sections or three carved panels that are hinged together
Diptych
A work of art that is divided into two sections or two carved panels that are hinged together
Altarpiece
A decorative panel placed at the front of the church by the altar
Camera Obscura
"Dark Chamber," an optical device that led to photography. Used a lens to focus light and project an image upside-down. Possibly used by Vermeer to project compositions onto his canvases
Caravaggism
Same as tenebrism- using dramatic dark values, inspired by Caravaggio
Caravaggisti
The people who followed Caravaggio's style
Baroque diagonal
The angle used to create drama and movement in many Baroque compositions
Academie (Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture)
The entity in charge of saying whether or not art was good and what made it good. Headed by Le Brun under Louis XIV
Charles Le Brun
Louis XIV thought he was the best artist ever and put him in charge of the academy of painting and sculpture. This artist also made zoomorphic drawings because he felt you needed to infuse subject with a soul and the animals embodied different passions.
Rococo
Sometimes called "Late Baroque," style of painting, architecture and decoration that included curls, curved lines, gold, cotton candy colors... highly ornamental
Decorative arts
Decorating objects, rooms, etc. as in the Rococo movement
Patron/patroness
A wealthy person who sponsors art
Baroque music
Dramatic "classical" music such as Handel, Bach, etc.
Enlightenment
-Philosophical movement that emphasized reason and logic
-Belief in objective truth and human rights
-Included people such as Voltaire, Rousseau and the founding fathers of the USA
-Influenced Neoclassicism
-Its ideals fueled both the American and French Revolutions
-Ended with the French revolution as people saw that reason and high ideals could still result in oppression and violence
Pompeii and Herculaneum
-Ancient Roman cities buried and preserved by the eruption of Vesuvius
-The discovery of their incredibly well preserved architecture and artifacts helped inspire and begin the Neoclassical movement which focused on a renewed interest in Classicism- the ordered and idealized style of Ancient Greece and Rome
Neoclassicism
-Artistic movement inspired by the Enlightenment and the discovery of Herculaneum and Pompeii in the 18th century
-Although it saw itself as opposed to Romanticism, could also be seen as the other side of the same coin
-Rejected the excesses of Baroque and Rococo
-Emphasized clean design (like the school of disegno) and idealized heroes
-Included artists and architects such as Thomas Jefferson, John Singleton Copley, Houdon, Canova, Jacques Louis David and Ingres
Voltaire
-One of the most important Enlightenment thinkers
-Deist: believed in God but not organized religion
-Believed in equality and religious tolerance but saw some races as having a different origin and therefore not equal
Deism
-Religious belief of some enlightenment thinkers such as Voltaire
-Belief, based on logic and reason, in God as a creator who does not interfere in His creation
-Rejected traditional organized religion
Romanticism
-An artistic and literary movement that was a reaction against Neoclassicism
-Although it saw itself as opposed to Neoclassicism, could also be seen as the other side of the same coin
-went along with nationalism as exemplified in the art of the Hudson River School
-Emphasized emotion over reason
-Emphasized individualism
-Took inspiration from nature, especially dramatic, terrible and awe-inspiring things such as storms
French Revolution
-Revolt inspired by the Enlightenment and the American Revolution
-Sought to replace the monarchy with a republic
-Escalated to the Reign of Terror, a period of restrictive, radical government under which many were guillotined
-Included the Jacobin Club, a radical organization that sought to defend the Republic
- Jacques Louis David was in charge of their propaganda
Disegno
-Emphasized design (line, form, composition) over color
Colore
-Emphasized color over design
-Evident in many Romantic paintings
Nationalism
-Patriotic feelings: this set of beliefs is evident in Romanticism especially the paintings of the Hudson River School
Hudson River School
-Group of American artists, especially Thomas Cole, who painted Romantic landscapes that displayed their nationalism
Realism
-An artistic and literary movement that rejected the idealism of Neoclassicism and the emotionalism of Romanticism and sought to portray life as it really was
-An artistic movement that often portrayed the working class as in Millet's The Gleaners rather than high and lofty heroes
Impressionism
-Artists who tried to paint the colors of the light (particularly noting the passing of time and how light changes at different times of day)
-Often worked en plein air
-Highly criticized at first, displayed many works in the Salon des Refuses
-Monet, Degas, Renoir, etc.
En Plein Air
Painting or drawing outdoors
Impasto
Painting thickly
Monet
-The only lifelong impressionist
-Painted water lilies, Rouen Cathedral, the Houses of Parliament and haystacks
Post Impressionism
-Not a unified movement
-Artists evolved Impressionism in different directions
-Toulouse-Lautrec, Van Gogh, Cezanne, Seurat, etc.
Cezanne
-Post Impressionist (former Impressionist)
-Wanted to give Impressionism a more solid form
-Painted fruit, skulls and a mountain near his hometown
Seurat
Post Impressionist who invented pointillism
Pointillism
Invented by Seurat, a type of visual color mixing using dots
Divisionism
-Dividing out the colors of the light, uses saturated color
-Popular with Matisse and the Fauves
Visual Color Mixing
Places colors so closely they appear to mix
Toulouse-Lautrec
-Post Impressionist
-Moulin Rouge
-Died young from alcoholism and syphilis
-Dwarf
-Talented artist
-Painting and lithograph
Lithograph
Printmaking that used stone plates, popular for posters such as those by Toulouse-Lautrec or Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
-Swirling feminine lines
-Women in draping dresses with long hair
-Decorative
-Femme fatale
Femme Fatale
Beautiful but deadly woman
Symbolism
-Movement that went along with Art Nouveau
-Used subject that meant more than their literal meaning
-Klimt
Existentialism
Philosophy that there is no greater meaning, only the choices we make
Friedrich Nietzche
Existential philosopher
Fauvism
Painterly movement lead by Matisse that used divisionism and bright, clashing colors
Decoupage
Cutting things out to glue them on to the canvas
Painterly
Visible brush strokes (Van Gogh, Monet, Matisse, etc.)
Color Theory
Understanding how color mixes
Cubism
-Developed by Picasso and Braque
-Analytical cubism: breaking down the subject into geometric parts viewed from different angles
-Synthetic cubism: collage
Picasso
Cubism, collage
Collage
Invented for cubism, gluing things onto the canvas
Futurism
Similar to cubism but more focused on the dynamic movement of the subject through space (Boccioni)
Blue Rider
title of a painting by Kandinsky that featured (shockingly) a rider wearing blue, also the name of an artist group that he headed
Non-representational
does not represent visual reality
Dada
rejection of society (also rejected by society at the time) anarchy, reaction to WWI, included poetry, performance piece, met at the Cabaret Voltaire
Readymades
Duchamp's series using manufactured objects
Surrealism
Bent reality, dreamlike, using realistic painting techniques but portraying impossible realities, often included visual puns and optical illusions
Action Painting
(Jackson Pollock) dripping, splattering, pouring etc.
Colorfield Painting
(Mark Rothko) fields of color designed to overwhelm the viewer with a particular emotion
Abstract Expressionism
expressed emotions, but not forms from reality (Pollock and Rothko)
Conceptual Art
Pop Art
Silkscreen
Benday Dots
Land Art
Hyper-realism
Photo-realism
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