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AP Euro Chapter 16 and 17

Review for the test
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T/F: The founder of the new Russian city on the coast of the Baltic Sea was Peter the Great
True
T/F: In the struggle between the Hungarian aristocrats and the Austrian Habsburgs, the Hungarian aristocrats maintained their traditional privileges
True
T/F: The monarchs of eastern Europe were generally stronger than the kings of western Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
False
T/F: With the Pragmatic Sanction, Charles VI proclaimed that the Habsburg lands were not to be divided
True
T/F: Ivan III ad Ivan IV (the "Terrible") transformed the Russian nobility in a service nobility
True
T/F: An excellent, early eighteenth century example of ties among politics, architecture and urban development is St. Petersburg.
True
T/F: The dominant artistic style of the seventeenth century was Gothic
False
T/F: Peter the Great was responsible for turning Russia inward and away from western influence
False
T/F: Political, rather than economic factors were the most important reason for the rise of serfdom in eastern Europe and the decline of serfdom in western Europe.
False
T/F: The Ottoman empire successfully conquered Vienna before it was later removed due to economic difficulties
False
T/F: Most of the royal revenues collected by the government of Peter the Great went towards warfare
True
T/F: "Old Believers" who left the Russian Orthodox church were allowed to form religious communities so long as they did not interfere with Russian politics
False
T/F: Fredrick William I was perhaps the most important ruler in establishing Prussian absolutism and giving it a unique character.
True
T/F: In contrast to Russia and Prussia, Austria's empire was more vulnerable to civil unrest due to large ethnic minorities that lived withing the Habsburg empire.
True
The unifiers and first rulers of the Russians were the _______
Mongols
By the seventeenth century, commercial activity, manufacturing, and mining in Russia were owned or controlled by the
tsar
In eastern Europe the courts prior to 1650 were largely controlled by
the landowners
The principality called the "sandbox of the holy Roman Empire" was
Brandenburg-Prussia
Ivan the Terrible
monopolized most mining and business activity
Peter the Great's reforms included
compulsory education away from home for the higher classes
The dominant artistic style of the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries was
baroque
The noble landowners of Prussia were known as
Junkers
Between about 1500 and 1650, most peasants in eastern Europe
lost status and became serfs
The Russian Cossacks were
free groups and outlaw armies
After the disastrous defeat of the Czech nobility by the Habsburgs at the battle of White Mountain in 1618, the
majority of the Czech nobles' land was given to soldiers who had fought for the Habsburgs
After the Thirty Years' War and the creation of a large standing army, Austria turned its attention to the control of
Hungary
The result of the struggle of the Hungarian nobles against Habsburg oppression was that
they gained a great deal of autonomy compared with the Austrian and Bohemian nobility
THe monarch who established Prussian absolutism and who was named "the Soldiers' King"
Fredrick William I
The Muscovite princes gained their initial power through
services rendered to the Mongols
The rise of the Russian monarchy was largely a response to the external threat of the
Asiatic Mongols
The Time of Troubles was caused by
a dispute in the line of succession
In order to strengthen the Russian military, Peter the Great
made the nobility serve in the civil administration or army for life
The real losers in the growth of eastern Europe absolutism were the
peasants
The siege of Vienna of 1683 was undertaken by
the Turks
The Battle of Poltava marks a Russian victory over
Sweden
All of the following reflected the power and magnificence of royal absolutism except
soaring gothic cathedrals
The result of the Czech noble revolt of 1618 was
their replacement by Habsburg loyalists
The Habsburg state was made up of
Austria, Bohemia, and Hungary.
Absolutism in eastern Europe emerged in all of the following countries EXCEPT
Poland
Suleiman the Magnificent
Ottoman Turkish leader who almost captured Vienna in 1529
Hohenzollern
Royal family who ruled Prussia from the seventeenth century until the early twentieth century
Michael Romanov
Russian ruler who restored order after the Time of Troubles and who became the first ruler of the Romanov line
Serfdom
Institution where serfs in eastern Europe were required to perform three days of unpaid labor for their lords
Turkey
Present-day country that formed the heart of the Ottoman Empire
Janissary Corps
Christians who were taken from their families as children in the Balkans who became slaves and later, the core of the Ottoman army
Fredrick William
Prussian ruler of the mid-seventeenth century who began centralizing power in that state and created a permanent standing army.
Schonbrunn
Enormous palace built in Vienna by Leopold I that was modeled after the Versailles Palace in France.
Winter Palace
Grand royal residence in St. Petersburg that was rebuilt at the request of Peter the Great's daughter, Elizabeth.
Time of Troubles
Period of political upheaval after the death of Ivan the Terrible
T/F: Governments in the seventeenth century lost important powers to the reformed and energetic Catholic Church
False
T/F: During the seventeenth century, monarchs acquired sovereignty
True
T/F: The best example of absolute monarchy int he seventeenth century was in France
True
T/F: Henry IV of France was unwilling to convert to Catholicism
False
T/F: The basic foundation for French absolutism was laid by Cardinal Richelieu
True
T/F: The fronde was a revolt against the policies of Mazarin and the boy-king Louis XIV
True
T/F: The cultural center of Europe in the seventeenth century was England, Especially London
False: Versailles
T/F: under Louis XIV the Edict of Nantes was extended to all of France
False
In 1596, 1607, 1627, 1647, and 1680, the Spanish crown declared bankruptcy
True
Charles I's attempt to rule without consulting Parliament led to the development of absolutism in England
False
During the age of economic growth in Spain, a vast number of Spaniards left religious orders
False
The Duke of Sully was Louis XIV's able minister of finance
False
For Louis XIV of France the War of Spanish Succession was a disaster
True
Mercantilism
insisted on a favorable balance of trade
French Protestants tended to be
clever business people
The War of Spanish Succession began when Charles II of Spain left his territories to
a French heir
Which of the following is a characteristic of an absolute state
permanent standing armies
Cardinal Richelieu's most notable accomplishment was
the creation of a highly effective administrative system
Absolute monarchs secured mastery over the nobility by all of the following EXCEPT
regulating religious groups
Cardinal Richelieu consolidated the power of the French monarchy by doing all of the following EXCEPT
eliminating the intendant system of local government.
one way in which Louis XIV controlled the French nobility was by
requiring the presence of the major noble families at Versailles for at least part of the year
The french army under Louis XIV
lived off the countryside
The Peace of Utrecht in 1713
represented the balance-of-power principle in action
The downfall of Spain in the seventeenth century can be blamed on
weak and ineffective monarchs
Which of the following is a book by Cervantes that has as its hero and idealistic but impractical soldier
Don Quixote
Treaty of the Pyrenees
Mid-sixteenth-century treaty that ended the French-Spanish wars and symbolized the end of Spain as a great power
Intendants
French royal commissioners who were usually members of the upper middle class or minor nobility and who were solely responsible to the monarch
Hugenots
French Calvinists became targets of Louis XIV's religious policies
Fronde
civil wars between 1648-1653 where nobles sought to reduce the absolute power of the monarchy
Mercantilism
Economic system further developed by Colbert whereby a country sought to achieve a favorable balance of trade with other countries.
Richelieu
First minister under Louis XIII who was important in developing absolutism in France
Edict of Nantes
Edict revoked by Louis XIV that had given religious toleration to French Calvinists
Baroque
Art and literary style in France that dominated during he age of Louis XIV.
Treaty of Utrecht
Treaty that ended the War of Spanish Succession and represented the balance-of-power principle at work
Henry IV
French monarch who initiated an economic recovery and gained Protestant confidence through the Edict of Nantes
Jean Baptiste Colbert
Finance minister and economic genius under Louis XIV whose development of French mercantilism led to increased production and trade
Cardinal Mazarin
Most powerful figure in the French government of Louis XIV during the early years of the "Sun King's" reign.
Duke of Sully
first minister under Henry IV who helped centralize power int he late sixteenth and early seventeenth century
Moors and Jews
Two ethnic groups in Spain whose expulsion in the 15th and 16th centuries led to a significant decline in the Spanish middle class
Which political entity constituted the largest land area in the Holy Roman Empire?
Austrian
Which political entity was becoming the 2nd most powerful withing the Holy Roman Empire?
Prussians
Which dynastic family controlled the Austrian Netherlands?
Hapsburgs
T/F: Charles I's attempt to rule without consulting Parliament led to the development of absolutism in England
False
T/F: The United Provinces of the Netherlands offered the greatest degree of religious toleration in the seventeenth century
True
The highest executive office of the Dutch republic was the stadholder
False
The Dutch East India Company sought only to enrich the highest ranking government officials in the Dutch Republic
False
Oliver Cromwell invaded Ireland in order to re-institute Catholicism in that country
False
Scotland revolted against England when Archbishop Laud sought to impose the rituals of the Anglican Church on Scottish presbyterian
True
According to King James I, Anglican bishops were the largest threat to the king's power
False
The "Glorious Revolution" officially resulted in a constitutional monarchy in England
True
The Hanoverian kings of the 18th century turned out to be far more autocratic in their rule than the Stuarts in the 17th century
True
The Dutch Repblic was successful in creating conditions through which diverse groups of peoples coexisted in the country's activites
True
Which of the following cities was the commercial and financial capital of Europe throughout most of the seventeenth century?
Amsterdam
Of the following, the country most centered on middle-class interests was
the Netherlands
Which of the following Englishmen was a Catholic?
James II
The statement "there are no privileges and immunities which can stand against a divinely appointed king" forms the basis of the
Stuart notion of constitutionalism
The English Long Parliament
enacted legislation against absolutism
Cromwell's government is best described as a
military dictatorship
When Archbishops Laud tried to make the Presbyterian Scots accept the Anglican Book of Common Prayer, the Scots
revolted
Who amon the following was a proponent of the idea that the purpose of government is to protect life, liberty, and property
John Locke
After the United Provinces of the Netherlands won independence from Spain, their government could best be described as
a weak union of strong provinces
The dutch economy was based on
fishing, world trade, and banking
During the administration of Robert Walpole in Britain, the idea developed that
the cabinet be responsible to the House of Commons
The Amstel River was the major link between which of the following cities and its world trading system?
Amsterdam
Calvin
Religious reformer who stated, "From where do the merchant's profits come except from his own diligence and industry."
William Laud
Archbishops whose goal was to enforce anglican unity in england and scotland
Glorious Revolution
Event in the late 17th century that led to a removal of a king leading to England's officially became a constitutional monarchy
upper class gentry
social class that dominated the House of Commons in the early seventeenth century
Stadholders
highest executive in each of the seven provinces of the Netherlands who was responsible for defense and maintaining order
Civil war
religious conflict that pitted the Cavaliers against the Roundheads and resulted in the decapitation of Charles I
"Ship money"
Specific tax levied by Charles I during the eleven ears that he ruled without Parliament
Navigation Acts
Law passed under Oliver Cromwell that sought to enforce England's mercantilist system against Dutch competition
House of Commons
Governmental body in England's Parliament that became the chief opposition to the Stuart kings in the seventeenth century
restoration settlement
Term for the return of Charles II to the monarchy in England in 1660
Test Act
English law that prohibited from voting and holding public office those who refused to receive the sacrament of the Church of England.
Charles I
Monarch who was beheaded after his defeat in the civil war
William III of Orange
Dutch prince who thwarted the expansionism of Louis XIV and later became king of England
Robert Walpole
First prime minister of Great Britain and leader of the cabinet
Charles II
Stuart monarch who was restored to the English throne in 1660
Puritans
English religious sect that sought to rid the Anglican Church of its "Catholic" elements
Elizabeth I
16th century English monarch whose remarkable success was due to political shrewdness and flexibility
James II
Monarch who was forced to abdicate the throne during the "Glorious Revolution"
Thomas Hobbes
Philosopher who wrote that the power of the monarchy should be absolute but does not emanate from divine right
Mary II
English Queen who assumed the throne as a result of the "Glorious Revolution"
Oliver Cromwell
English Puritan and leader of the "New Model Army" who ruled England during the interregnum
James I
Scottish king who succeeded Elizabeth I and became the first of the Stuart line to rule in England
John Locke
English philosopher whose political theories justified the "Glorious Revolution"
From which state did Louis XIV gain the most territory north of France?
Spanish Netherlands
Which region represents the largest province gained by Louis XIV during his reign?
French-comte
From which war did Louis XIV gain the two small territories in southeaster France?
Spanish Succession (Peace of Utrecht)
popular revolts
uprisings and rebellions by peasants int he countryside
intendants
the holder of a public administrative office, royal civil servants
mercantilism
increased role of the state in the economy in order to achieve a favorable balance of trade with other countries
Peace of Utrecht
most important treaty between Treaty of Westphalia and Treaty of Paris. Maintained balance of power in Europe, ended the expansionism of Louis XIV
constitutionalism
arose after the Glorious Revolution, limited the power of the monarch and established Parliaments the supreme being over the King/Queen
puritans
discontent with church of England, ideas came from Calvin, believed the bible was the law
Second Treatise of Civil Government
state of nature=individuals aren't under obligation but are each a judge of what the law of nature requires
divine right of kings
kings were born to be kings, placed on throne by God, and owed his authority to no man or group
absolute monarchy
monarch gets ultimate authority as head of state and government
protectorate
the relation of a strong state to a weaker one that it protects/controls
test act
english penal laws serving as a religious test for public ofic and imposed various civil disabilities on Roman Catholics
serfdom
the status of peasants under feudalism
elector of Brandenburg
abolished in 1806, continued under kingdom of Prussia
Peace of Weatphalia
a series of treaties signed in 1648 in Osnabruc and munster. ended the 30 years war
Battle of Mohacs
King Louis II defeated by ottoman empire led to partition of Hungary
tsar
used to designate european slavic monarchs/supreme rulers
boyars
a member was a member of the highest rank or aristocracies, upper nobility in Russia.
Mongol Yoke
250 years, 10% of surviving population might have been enslaved
Bohemian Estates
divided (religiously), conflict with monarchy vs. Ferdinand
Sultan
rulers who claimed almost full sovereignty in lack of dependence on any higher ruler
pragmatic sanction
made sure throne could be inherited by a daughter
Old Believers
separated from Russian Orthodox Church protesting reforms.