AP Euro Chapter 16
Terms in this set (31)
a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions
Sir Isaac Newton
This scientist was an English mathematician and physicist who devised principles to explain universal gravitation, that all matter attracts other matter.
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
wrote "Leviathan" and believed people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish; he also believed only a powerful governemnt could keep an orderly society
from family of refugee Portuguese Jews, philosopher examining fundamentals of reality, human conduct, church and state. Made a living as lens grinder.
Argued that religion and rational values could be combined, urged religious toleration, presented judaism as one of many paths provided by god
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women
Frederick the Great of Prussia
granted religous freedom, reduced censorship, improved education, reformed the justice system, and abolished torture
one of the 18th century European monarchs who was inspired by Enlightenment ideas to rule justly and respect the rights of subjects. ex: Catherine the Great, Fredrick the Great, Maria Theresa
Joseph II of Austria
embodied rational, impersonal force; son of Maria Theresa and co-ruler with her. wished to improve the lot of people; believed in religious toleration; sought to reduce Hungarian autonomy; land system taxation
A culture in which the volume of printed material including books, journals, newspapers, magazines greatest increased. This literary structure helped circulate the ideas of the philosophes which fostered the growth of the Enlightenment in Europe.
elegant sitting room where guests are received
Social critics and writes of the eighteenth century who flourished in the expanding print culture and who took the lead in forging the new attitudes favorable to change, championed reform, and advocated toleration
French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Candide. Believed enlightened despot best form of government. Offended nobles by his politically and socially irreverent poetry and plays. arrested and jailed twice. Praised virtues of the English about religious liberty, and implicitly criticized the abuses of French society. (Letters on the English)
a belief in a rational God who had created the universe, but then allowed it to function without his interference according to the mechanisms of nature and a belief in rewards and punishments after death for human actions
Freedom and Economic improvement. product of collective efforts of hundreds of authors including pieces regarding illustrations on manufacturing, canal building, ship constructing, and improved agriculture.
heroic editor of the Encyclopedia- read by all Enlighteners
Believed economic liberty was the foundation of a natural economic system. Argued that the mercantile system of England gave favored to merchants and industries, most tariffs be abolished. Encourage economic growth through individual selfish economic interest.
philosophe; promoted criminal justice; applied logic and reason to crime and punishment; felt that the justice system should focus on preserving social order instead of avenging crimes; called for the abolition of capital punishment and torture; wanted speedy trials and the elimination of cruel and unusual punishment. Attacked unnecessary torture and capital punishment.
believed people in their natural state were basically good but that they were corrupted by the evils of society, especially the uneven distribution of property
This style embraced lavish, often lighthearted decoration with an emphasis on pastel colors and the play of light.
(1700-1770) Rococo painter employed by Louis XIV to paint Madame Pompadour and his other mistresses.
French artist during Rococo style. In his paintings, gentlemen and ladies in elegant dress reveal a world of upper-class pleasure and joy. Underneath that exterior, however, is an element of sadness as the artist suggests the fragility and passing nature of pleasure, love, and life.
a religious philosophy that tried to combine mysticism with classical and rationalist speculation. Its chef formulator was Plotinus.
French painter known for his classicism and his commitment to the ideals of the French Revolution. His works include The Oath of the Horatii (17850 and The Death of Marat (1793).
Catherine the Great
This was the empress of Russia who continued Peter's goal to Westernizing Russia, created a new law code, greatly expanded Russia, and continued the economic development under Peter the Great.
Benevolent/Enlightened Despot, This was the queen of Austria as a result of the Pragmatic Sanction. She limited the papacy's political influence in Austria, strengthened her central bureaucracy and cautiously reduced the power that nobles had over their serfs. Refused to consider toleration
Spirit and Laws, he held up the example of the British constitution as the wisest model for regulating the power of the government. French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers (1689-1755)
Professor in East Prussia, argued that if serious thinkers were granted freedom to exercise their reason in print, enlightenment would surely follow. He said that Frederick the Great was an enlightened monarch because he allowed this.
Scottish philosopher whose sceptical philosophy restricted human knowledge to that which can be perceived by the senses (1711-1776), believed that people only believed in God out of superstition and fear.
Believed that public problems should dealt with on a rational scientific basis. Believed in the idea of the greatest good for the greatest number. Wrote, Principles of Morals and Legislation.