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social differences between men and women, rather than the anatomical, biological differences between the sexes; notions of gender differences


defined by geographer Gillian Rose as "how we make sense of ourselves;" how people see themselves at different scales

identifying against

constructing an identity by first defining the "other" and then defining ourselves as "not the other"


a categorization of humans based on skin color and other physical characteristics; racial categories are social and political constructions because they are based on ideas that some biological differences (especially skin color) are more important than others (e.g., height, etc.), even though the latter might have more significance in terms of human activity


frequently referred to as a system or attitude toward visible differences in individuals, racism is an ideology of difference that ascribes (predominantly negative) significance and meaning to culturally, socially, and politically constructed ideas based on phenotypical features

residential segregation

defined by geographers Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton as the degree to which two or more groups live separately from one another, in different parts of an urban environment

invasion and succession

process by which new immigrants to a city move to and dominate and take over areas or neighborhoods occupied by older immigrant groups

sense of place

state of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in that place or by labeling a place with a certain character


affiliation or identity within a group of people bound by common ancestry and culture


defined by Doreen Massey and Pat Jess as "social relations stretched out"


uniqueness of a location; fourth theme of geography


in terms of a place, whether the place is designed for or claimed by men or women

queer theory

theory defined by geographers Glen Elder, Lawrence Knopp, and Heidi Nast that highlights the contextual nature of opposition to the heteronormative and focuses on the political engagement of "queers" with the heteronormative

dowry deaths

in the context of arranged marriages in India, disputes over the price to be paid by the family of the bride to the father of the groom (the dowry) have, in some extreme cases, led to the death of the bride


defined by geographer James Curtis as the dramatic increase in Hispanic population in a given neighborhood

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