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Religion 101 Final Exam
Terms in this set (104)
First caliph, Muhammad's friend and father of second wife, died within a year of succeeding prophet
Fourth caliph, cousin and son-in-law, according to Shi'ites he was the first legitimate successor, murdered
The Arabic term for God
"God is most great" A frequent expression in Islam
Arabic for "the base" An Islamic terrorist network responsible for the September 11, 201 attacks and others
"Sign or reflection of God" A title of honor in Shi'ite Islam
Arabic for "successor"; In Islam, a political successor to the prophet Muhammad
"House of War"
Arabic for "house of peace"; a symbol of the ideal of political unity established by submission to the will of Allah
"poor", also fakir, initiates to Sufi brotherhoods, practice ascetic lifestyle
In Islam, a formal opinion treating a moral, legal or doctrinal question, issued by recognized scholar
The profession of faith
Alms tax for needy
Fasting during the month of Ramadan
The hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca at least once
Arabic for "speech, news, or event"; refers to the narrative (or traditions) of what the prophet Muhammad said, did or was like when he established the first Muslim community in Medina. After the Qur'ran, the major source of determining Sharia.
Pilgrimage to Mecca, which every able Muslim must try at least once during his or her lifetime
Arabic for "emigration"; the emigration of the prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 ce; Muslims date their calendar to this event
largest among several Muslim groups committed to using violent tactics to liberate Palestine ("The Islamic Resistance Movement in Palestine")
'Ali's youngest son, attempted to succeed his father, but executed by the Ummayad's. He is the reason Shi'ites place a particular importance on the martyrdom for the true faith
A name for Satan, who is considered to be the personification of evil and the chief of the jinn. He rules over hell until judgement day, after having been banished from heaven for his disobedience to God
consensus of Muslim community
Arabic for "one who stands before"; in Sunni Islam, the leader of worship in the mosque. In Shi'ite Islam, a spiritual successor to the prophet Muhammad so is endowed with the power to interpret the trust in the age in which he lives
Arabic for "if God's will", a common expression in Islam
Arabic for "struggle, exertion" referring to the obligation of all Muslims to struggle against error and idolatry. The "greater" jihad is the individuals personal struggle; the "lesser" jihad is the struggle of the Muslim community to better itself against those who destroy the faith
Arabic for "the cube" central shrine of Islam, located in the Grand Mosque of Mecca. Symbolizes the center of the world and is widely visited.
Muhammad's first wife, her wealth allowed Muhammad freedom for private spiritual discipline and reflection. His first convert.
"the guided one"; referred to as the descendant of Muhammad who will restore the purity of the faith. When he comes he will lead the world to a new age of justice.
Mosque; Arabic for "the place of worship or burning down"
Arabian city at the center of the Muslim world. When Muslims pray, they prostrate themselves in the direction of Mecca.
Arabian city to which the prophet Muhammad emigrated to and established the first Muslim community
"crier"; calls faithful to prayer five appointed times
called others to the exclusive faith in Allah, received the Qur'ran from Gabriel
another manifestation of commitment to purify Islam from perceived corruption. Educational and political movement with the goal of raising awareness in the Muslim world of the need to purge negative, secular influences from Islamic societies.
Osama bin Laden
Proponent of worldwide Islamic revolution against the west. Established al-qaeda ("the base"). Issued a fatwa ("religious edict") calling for Muslims to kill US citizens
People of the Book
Designates religions that have sacred texts, especially Judaism and Christianity
analogy from the teachings of the Qur'ran or hadith and apply to new circumstances
Arabic for "recitation"; the collection of revelations received by the prophet Muhammad from God (Allah) through the angel Gabriel
the month of fasting required in the fourth pillar, month when Muhammad received the first revelation
great Muslim leader, led the resistance to the Crusades
Seal of the Prophets
Muhammad, the last messenger of Allah to humanity
the way one becomes a Muslim is reciting the Shahadah with faith, repeated by Muslims everyday. Once recited the rest of the pillars become duty
The path or way Muslims are to follow, hence Muslim "Law"
The smaller of the two main divisions of Islam; split over the issue of rightful succession to the prophet Muhammad
"Idoltry"; Wahhabi movement teaches that all forms must be rooted out and crushed
The mystical movement within Islam
Larger of two main branches of Islam; where the Qur'ran is not explicit, the movement appeals to sunna (the manner of behavior associated with the prophet Muhammad, know via Hadith)
One of the divisions, chapters, of the Qur'ran
Seized power in Afghanistan and created the rigidly conservative Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ; Arabic for students, because movement led by Wahhabi students. Prohibit women from leaving home, going to school and require covered bodies.
Scholars responsible for interpreting Sharia
Arabic for "community"; often used for the entire community of Muslims throughout the world
first Muslim movement to try to purify Islam, rigid adherence to the Qur'ran and ways of Muhammad expressed in hadith
"baptism for a second time", comes from practice of baptizing people as adults rather than as infants. Known for pacifism and the strict seperation of church and state
Broke from authority of the pope in the 16th century, but technically remains Catholic in it's own self-understanding and doctrines
Referring to the revelation of the secrets of the time
The doctrine of authority in the Christian church is determined by a line of succession from the apostles of Jesus
Bishop of Hippo in North Africa, his conceptualizations of the transcendence of God, the Trinity, the original sin, divine grace, faith, the sacraments, and the rode of the church in history helped explain/shape the orthodox Christian teachings as expressed today
United by common acceptance of believer baptism
Maintained John Paul II's direction of the church. Special concern with the revitalization of the Church in the Western world, in the face of a concern about the corrosive effects of the materialism and relativism
groups or individuals, or churches that emphasize the role of the Holy Spirit manifest in ecstatic gifts such as speaking in tongues
Convened the Council of Nicaea to reconcile disputes among Christian leaders over the vexing question of the nature of Christ
in Holy Communion, the body and blood of Christ are actually present with or alongside (but not replacing) the physical elements of bread and wine
the teaching that Christ is present in all reality. Sometimes called the "third nature" of Christ (alongside human and divine)
Council of Nicea
called by Constantine in 325 ce to reconcile differences among Christian leaders over questions of Christ's nature. Produced the Nicene creed.
Council of Trent
Set forth position in opposition to Protestant Reformers. Stated that the tradition of the Catholic Church had equal authority with scripture. Also reaffirmed the seven sacraments of the Catholic Church.
Roman Catholic response to the various Protestant reforms, as called by protestants
an agreement characterized by mutually loyalty and trust.
From the Greek for "the whole inhabited world"; in Christianity, used to refer to the movement for increased cooperation and unity among Christian Churches
the first seven created the infallible creeds and dogmas that maintain a great deal of unity in doctrine and litrugy among orthodox churchs
commitment to addressing the structual causes of poverty, hunger and war. No one form of worshipping, not structurally related to denomination.
The Lord's Supper, Holy Communion
while discharging the office of pastor and doctor of Christian. The condition when utterances of the Pope are without error.
Francis of Assisi
accorded that all creations and natural processes a value entirely seprate from human interest. Everything has a direct relationship with God.
stresses the absolute, unchanging and unequivocally true nature of the movements core teaching
The Christian proclamation of the "good news" of the salvation through Jesus Christ
Split between East and West, when the Pope excommuniated a patriarch in 1054
refers to the free gift of salvation through Jesus Christ
(Greek for "image" or "lifeness") represent those who have experienced "deification" and now serve to inspire
committed to the spread of Catholocism, serving as missionaries and founding elite educational institutions. Founded by Ignatius Loyola.
Shared the Luther principles os salvation by God's grace through faith alone, supreme authority of scripture, and the "priesthood of all believers" Stressed Apostle Paul's teaching that God "predestines" or "elects" those who will by saved. The role of Calvinism in the development of capitalism in Europe has been widely acknowledged
John Paul II
First non-Italian pope, identified with poor and oppressed, supported traditional teachings of personal morality
Kingdom of Gods
Reign of God on Earth, to be fully established by the end of the current age
stresses the fundamental activity of God is the liberation of humans from whatever keeps them in bondage
split from the Church of England, emphasizes that the true church is a gathering of people together in a particular place
natures of Christ
a cause of much dispute, about whether Jesus in man, God or both
Christian teachings that all humans are sinful at birth, or are born with a tendency to sin
referring to authorative rights, right beliefs in a religious community
Pharisee who had a transforming encounter with the risen Christ. Wrote is of the letters in the New Testament
emphasizes the literal interpretation of Scripture a "baptism of the Spirit" and the manisfestation of the escatic gifts (Ex. speaking in tongues)
First Bishop of Rome, first Pope
A Christian movement that emphasizes personal spritual devotion over corporate worship and assent to the doctrine
Title for bishop of Rome; leader of the Roman Catholic Church
Protestant; largest reformed church is Presbyterian
the signs of God's grace; rituals through which believers participate in the spirtual reality to which the rituals point
process of growing in this new spiritual life
The second coming of Christ
Second Vatican Council
after this, mass was said in native language, sought to modernize the church in response to positive developments in the world at large
St. Teresa of Avila
a mystic who was also a gifted theologian, wrote about the richness of a life spent in quiet contemplation of God, wrote the Interior Castle.
Drew upon the philosophy of Artistotle to defend rationally basic Christian conceptions as the claim that God is the creator of the universe, so they could be accepted on the basis of reason. Christian revelation fulfills rather than contradicts the rational pursuit of truth.
through proper consecration during the sacrament of Holy Communion, the elements of bread and wine become the substance of the body and blood of Christ
the doctrine of one God is three "persons" (Father, Son and Holy Spirit)
marked the Roman destruction of Jerusalem and the second Temple after a Jewish Revolt. After the 70 CE association with Judaism became less beneficial of Christians, because of Roman response to the Jewish revolt.
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