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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
The Protestant Reformation
Terms in this set (58)
an official not participation in benefices but receiving payment and privileges. On of the corruptions in the Catholic Church
an official holding more than one office at a time
Pope Julius II
the Warrior Pope, famous for his military prowess and diplomatic intrigue; commissioned Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel and secured the Papal States
Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe although his criticisms of the Church led to the Reformation, he opposed violence and condemned Martin Luther. he wrote The Praise of Folly, worked for Frobein and translated the New Testament from Greek to Latin
Followers of John Whycliffe, who questioned the supremacy and privileges of the pope and church heirarchy
written by Martin Luther and posted on the door of the church of Wittenberg, they were a direct critique of the catholic church, he wrote them in Latin and in German so that the common people could read them as well
"whole inhabited world". brings bishops and others entitled to vote from all over the world to discuss central issues of the church
a Spaniard who was among the chief thinkers for the Anti-Trinitarians. He was executed in 1553 in Geneva for "blasphemies against the Holy Trinity." This thinker was among the strongest opponents of Calvinism, especially its belief in original sin and predestination and has a deserved reputation of defending religious tolerance.
Priesthood of all believers
As long as one believes in God then he doesn't need the church to have a personal relationship with God.
Twelve Articles of Swabia
Printed demands of some peasantry during German Peasants' War, helped spread German Peasants' War. Demanded release of village peasantry from status of serf
Peace of Augsburg
Agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler
Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life.
(lack of free will)
gained a following of rich merchants in the Netherlands, revolt against Habsburgs, Phillip sends Alva to pacify them
Group of people targeted in the massacre on St. Bartholemew's Day in 1572
The selling or buying of a position in a Christian church
(Issue w/ Catholicism)
clergy was ignorant; many preached in Latin that they couldn't read or understand
(Issue w/ Catholicism)
Pope Leo X
began to sell indulgences to raise money to rebuild St. Peter's Basilica in Rome; tried to get Luther to recant his criticisms of the church; condemned him an outlaw and a heretic when he would not do so; banned his ideas and excommunicated him from the church
This was the man who was hired by Archbishop Albert of Mainz to sell indulgences, which he did extremely successfully
95 Thesis, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule.
Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion.
*Established the Lutheran Church
*German theologian, monk, university professor, and church reformer.
* Ideals lead to Protestant Reformation. Excommunicated by Catholic Church in 1521 after dispute with Charles V.
*Translated the Bible into German
A member of a radical movement of the 16th-century Reformation that viewed baptism solely as an external witness to a believer's conscious profession of faith, rejected infant baptism, and believed in the separation of church from state, in the shunning of nonbelievers, and in simplicity of life.
Fredrick of Saxony ("the wise")
One of the German princes of the Roman Catholic Church. Protected Luther from Charles V--esp @ Diet of Wroms
The Brethren of the Common Life
part of the church, but not officials of the church,
lived in simplicity
*fed the hungry
* clothed the naked
*visited the sick
*taught in local schools,
Thomas a Kempis
"Scripture alone." It is the belief that all man needs for salvation is the Bible. This is a tenet for most Protestants.
Diet of Augsburg
Charles V called it
Settled the dispute between Lutherans and Catholics in Germany, each prince or free city leader chose their religion and those under their leadership had to follow
The Institutes of the Christian Religion
Book written by John Calvin containing two main beliefs: 1. Predestination and 2. Good works are a sign that you are destined for Heaven. Led to the "Protestant Work Ethic".
The religious doctrine that Martin Luther developed; it differed from Catholicism in the doctrine of salvation, which Luther believed could be achieved by faith alone, not by good works; Lutheranism was the first Protestant faith
Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination (the idea that God decided whether or not a person would be saved as soon as they were born). Calvinists supported constitutional representative government and the separation of church and state.
English scholar and theologian (1330-1384). He wrote that papal claims of temporal power had no foundation in the Scriptures and that the Scriptures should alone be the foundation of Christian belief and practice. Advocated that all Christians should read the Bible for themselves.
Holy Roman emperor (1519-1558) and king of Spain as Charles I (1516-1556). He summoned the Diet of Worms (1521) and the Council of Trent (1545-1563). He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation.
French humanist whose theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Developed Calvinism at Geneva. Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion.
Members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534. They played an important part in the Catholic Reformation.
Act of Succession
document passed by the Reformation Parliament in the same year as the Act of Supremacy that made Anne Boleyn's children legitimate heirs to the throne
Pilgrimage of Grace
An uprising in the North of England in 1536 posed a serious threat to the English crown. Both gentry and peasants were angry over the dissolution of monasteries, and feared that their spiritual needs would no longer be met. Henry VIII was able to suppress this as a result of his political power.
Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation. Uneducated peasants thought that it meant that they would not have to do good deeds any more.
The leader of the Czech religious reforms, and the spiritual founder of the Protestant reformation in the 1500's. He was convicted by the Council of Constance for heresy.
The religious doctrine that Martin Luther developed; it differed from Catholicismin the doctrine of salvation, which Luther believed could be achieved by faith alone, not by good works; Lutheranism was the first Protestant faith
The bread and wine undergo a spiritual change in the Eucharist- Martin Luther
Diet of Worms
(1521) Special imperial council in Worms, Germany, to which Martin Luther was summoned after his excommunication in 1521. Luther was ordered to abandon his revolutionary ideas, which he refused to do, so he was banished from the empire. Luther was then sheltered in Saxony.
It was the sacred congregation of the papal court that deals with protection of faith and morals. The Holy Office was a powerful instrument of the Counter Reformation.
refused to sign the Act of Succession because he wouldn't recognize Henry VIII as head of the Church and was killed in 1535; wrote Utopia
Luther did not like the Jews (...)
Luther wrote "On Jews and their lies"
1549-1555: Religious civil war between Nothern Germany (included Denmark, Sweden, and some HRE princes) and France against Charles V (Catholic Hapsburgs) Charles V
Act of Supremacy
Proclaimed King Henry VIII the supreme leader of the Church of England, which meant that the pope was no longer recognized as having any authority within the country, and all matters of faith, ecclesiastical appointment, and maintenance of ecclesiastical properties were in the hands of the king.
(1485-1540) Became King Henry VII's close advisor following Cardinal Wolsey's dismissal. He and his contemporary THomas Cranmer convinced the king to break from Rome and made the Church of England increasingly more Protestant.
Council of Trent
*Criticized the Protestants
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants.
Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend
* a council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in Trento in three sessions
* examine and condemn the teachings of Martin Luther and other Protestant reformers
* redefined the Roman Catholic doctrine and abolished various ecclesiastical abuses
* strengthened the papacy
These were decrees by the Council of Trent, and authoritative council of the Catholic Church. Some specified Church doctrine regarding things like the Sacraments, Original Sin, saints, etc, in response to Protestant arguments. They also defined heresy (specifically, Protestant heresy).
Tridentine decree that forced weddings to be public
Also known as the Catholic Reformation; it was an attempt by the Catholic church to win back followers by taking care of the corrupt individuals in the church
Founded the Society of Jesus, resisted the spread of Protestantism, wrote Spiritual Exercises.
Order of the Ursulines
The Ursuline order is known for their education of Women. It was founded by Angela Merici.
(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.
Catherine of Aragon
When Henry VIII needed a son to continue the Tudor dynasty, and he found out his wife Catherine of Aragon could not give him one (only a daughter, Mary), he sought an annulment. Of course, the Catholic Church denied him one, and in return Henry VIII split England from the Catholic Church and created the Anglican Church.
m. 1509 - 1533
*Henry VIII mistress during the time of the English Reformation.
* One of the reasons Henry VIII wanted to get his marriage to Catherine annulled is so that he could marry her.
*has a daughter Elizabeth
* still-born son
* executed for false treason
*mother of first, last, and only son Edward VI.
* She died during childbirth.
Anne of Cleves
*marriage: 1540 (Jan-July)
*Thomas Cromwell (Chief Minister) persuaded Henry to marry her for an alliance with Germany; her father was the duke;
*married Henry 1540
*married bec her 19 year old spirit caught his attention
*he beheaded her on the green tower in 1542
*cousin to Anne Boleyn
* Henry's companion and nurse in his old age
* Promoted Protestantism
*Married after widowed
* Had married 2x before
*Created the Church of England or Anglican Church which was separate from the Catholic Church
* Doctrines were vague so that there was a bit of room for religious freedom
*Began because of a political dispute between the king and the pope
* The pope refused to grant a divorce between King Henry VIII and his Spanish wife and was busy w/ Luther
* In response to this, the King broke England's ties with the Catholic Church and established himself as the head of Christian faith
*However, after the king died, his two daughters reestablished England as a Catholic nation.
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