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Govt.. 2306 - Chapters 11,12,13
Terms in this set (100)
Prior to 2003, tuition for public colleges and universities in Texas was set by
the state legislature.
Following a legislative decision in 2003 to reduce state funding to higher education, which source of university revenue began to increase most rapidly?
Student tuition and fees
Why must the Texas legislature maintain a balanced budget?
It is required by the Texas Constitution
Given the budge structure and constitutional limitations upon spending and taxing, legislators seeking to balance the budget are left with
few choices as to how to balance the budget
Federal money is an important part of the Texas budget, but monies that Texas receives from the federal government
often come with strings attached
Federal funds appropriated in Texas generally are
concentrated on a few state agencies
Which phrase best characterizes Texas's reputation in terms of taxes and services?
low service, low tax
Texas spending on a per capita basis is
much lower than the national average
Compared to other states, which statement regarding revenue sources for the state of Texas is true?
Texas has no income tax but high sales tax
Which is the single largest source of tax revenue for the state of Texas?
According to our text, what determines the amount of tax revenue generated from oil and natural gas produced in Texas?
market price and the amount produced
Overall, the tax system in Texas is generally considered to be regressive, which means that
the tax burden consumes a greater percentage of income received by lower-income individuals
Who pays the greatest portion of their income in property taxes?
poor homeowners and renters
What is the argument commonly used by supporters of a state income tax?
It is a fairer and more reliable source of revenue
If Texas instituted a progressive income tax
low-income Texans would pay a lower tax rate than wealthy Texans
Texas will not implement a statewide income tax in the immediate future because
the voters would not approve the measure
Next to revenue generated by state taxes, the second largest source of state revenue comes from
the federal government
Federal matching funds are
awarded to states that agree to fund a federal program on behalf of their own citizens.
Which statement regarding state-federal spending in Texas is true?
Texas spends less on state-federal programs than most states do.
Which statement concerning matching funds in Texas is true?
Texas has historically participated in matching funds at a relatively low rate
Authorized by voters in 1991, the Texas state lottery generates a sizeable sum for the state budget.
The lottery is played by large numbers of people from all social classes
The permanent School Fund (PSF) was created in
The main purpose of the Permanent School Fund (PSF) is to
fund primary and secondary schools in the state.
Which of the following agencies is responsible for managing the Permanent School Fund?
the Texas Board of Education
The funds generated by the Permanent School Fund are distributed to school districts across the state
based on attendance rates
The Economic Stabilization Fund (ESF) is commonly known as the
Rainy Day Fund
The Permanent University Fund (PUF) was established in 1876 with a land grant of 1 million acres. It contributes to the support of
the University of Texas and Texas A & M university systems
The National University Fund (NRUF) was established through a constitutional amendment to provide a source of funding for
universities seeking to achieve national prominence as research institutions.
One significant component of the budget process that is relatively unique to Texas is
the constitutional mandate that Texas legislators write a budget every two years
Which of the following is at the heart of the budget process in Texas?
The Texas comptroller
The Texas Constitution specifies that state payments for assistance to needy children and their caretakers shall not exceed ____ percent of the states' budget in any biennium.
The Legislative Budget Board (LBB) is chaired by the
The purpose of the Biennial Revenue Estimate (BRE) is to
provide a detailed forecast of total revenues that the state is expected to take in
Who prepares the BRE?
The process of drafting a bill is referred to as
Appropriations bills work their ways through both the House and the senate simultaneously. When there is disagreement on two versions of a bill, the bill is reconciled by
a conference committee
Who certifies the state budget of Texas?
In Texas, the governor's line item veto power is
very powerful because the governor can use it to limit expenditures
_____ monitors state agencies to ensure that they comply with the state budget.
The LBB, in conjuction with the State Auditor's Office.
Nationally, what two factors caused the bubble in the real estate market?
low interest rates and loose credit standards.
When compared to the rest of the nation, the real estate collapse in Texas was
the Texas legislature increased____ to help compensate for lower property tax revenues in the 2012-2013 budget cycle.
state corporate franchise taxes and cigarette taxes
To address the budget shortfall in the 2012-2013 budget the most common tactic used by the legislature was
From an overall standpoint, which statement is true?
The Texas economy is closely tied to the national economy.
Which of the following statements regarding public policy in Texas is true?
The policies of the national government influence Texas, but, for the most part, large segments of public policy, such as education, infrastructure, and legal matters, are state and local matters.
Which ideology reflected the public agenda in Texas during the first decade of the twenty-first century?
Under the Gilmer-Aikin laws
the State Board of Education was established and became the policy-making body for public education in Texas
The three main issues that have shaped education policy in Texas during the last fifty years are
funding, desegregation, and education excellence
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
validated the Texas state-imposed racial segregation in public schools
The legal doctrine at issue in the Plessy v. Ferguson case is the
separate but equal doctrine
Under the separate but equal doctrine in the 1920s and 1930s, the amount of money that the state of Texas spent on black students was _____ the amount spent on white students in public schools.
The U.S. Supreme Court overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson in
Brown v. Board of Education
In the Brown v. Board of Education case, segregated school districts were ordered to
desegregate their schools "with all deliberate speed."
By the late 1960s, de facto segregation
was still a problem in urban public schools with a large minority population
Among the most important findings of the 1983 report were
test scores were declining and functional illiteracy was increasing
The high school graduation rates in Texas are
among the lowest of all fifty states
Dropout rates in Texas are
highest among minorities
The most persistent social problem facing Texas is
The percentage of Texans living in poverty is approximately
The generally accepted standard by which poverty is measured in the United States is the
the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services poverty index
Which statement is true regarding poverty in Texas?
In Texas, the poverty rate among children is much higher than in the rest of the United States.
The origins of modern welfare policy lie in
President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal.
The ____ transformed the way in which the United states Handled poverty and implemented welfare policy
1935 Social Security Act
In the 1960s, welfare policy in Texas reflected
a policy of minimizing the cost to Texas while maximizing the use of federal dollars
In 1965, Congress created he Medicaid program, a state-federal program, to
provide health care for the poor
The most important welfare reform legislation since the New Deal was
the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, which created block-grant funding for Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)
The primary purpose of TANF was to
make families self-sufficient by ending the cycle of dependency on government benefits.
Welfare reforms are measured along which two dimensions?
The number of people on welfare and the success of getting people into the workforce
Since its creation, Medicaid has
grown large and complex, serving a variety of special interest groups.
Federal money for Medicaid programs
is accompanied by federal rules and regulations, which states must comply with to maintain federal funding of the program
The single most important issue confronting Texas policy makers with regard to Medicaid is
Which statement is true?
Texas leads the nation in the percentage of residents who lack health insurance coverage
In March 2010, Congress passed ____, substantially altering the nation's health care system.
The affordable Care Act
Which statement regarding the Affordable Care Act is true?
Congress was sharply split along party lines
In legal challenge to the Affordable Care Act, the Supreme Court ruled that
the tax penalizing people who failed to purchase medical insurance was constitutional
Most of the water used in Texas comes from
Which statement regarding water policy in Texas is true?
Water rights are a complicated matter balancing private property considerations and the public good.
Why are Texas counties important?
They provide the main form of government in rural areas
Which of the following is not a function of county government in Texas?
administering water districts
What is the main difference between a special district and a county?
A special district provides only one specific service whiten a geographic region
Which of the following statements about counties in Texas is incorrect?
All counties have approximately the same number of people
In Texas, what is the name of the officer who presides over the county commissioners court?
The job serving legal papers at the precinct level of a county goes to the _____.
The chief law-enforcement officer in county governments is the
Which of the following is not provided by a special district?
A home-rule charter
specifies the number of members serving on the city's governing body
What is the main difference between a home-rule city and a general-law city?
A general-law city is chartered for localities with a population of fewer than 5,000 persons.
Which of the following is not a key difference between the may-council and the council-manager forms of local government?
In the council-manager system, local politics is viewed as a full-time job, unlike a mayor-council system
The mayor-council form of government is most common in
smaller general-law cities
What is an at-large election?
an election in which voters elect officials from the entire geographical area, rather than from a smaller district within the area
The commissioner form of city government was developed as a response to the
hurricane at Galveston in 1900.
What was the effect of Dallas's shifting from an at-large to a single-member district system in 1991?
The change was responsible for the election of a significant number of African American and Hispanic council members
Which of the following is the most common from of local government in Texas?
A school district is
a special district
School boars can do all of the following except
draft standardized evaluation exams
Flood control is managed through special districts because
flooding is seldom contained in a single city or county
In Texas, who creates special districts?
Texas voters in the areas that will be covered
The chief financial officer for a city is called the
How are most special districts in Texas administered?
They are run by a board elected by residents within the district.
What are the main sources of revenue for special districts in Texas?
property taxes and user fees.