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44 terms

ancient china ch 7 secs 3 and 4

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first emperor
What does Shi Huangdi mean?
it built a strong army that defeated the armies of the other states
How did the Qin state become a dynasty?
a king from the Qin dynasty who gave himself the title of Shi Huangdi
who was Ying Zheng?
strong government with strict laws and harsh punishments
what type of government is Legalist?
tough
Was Shi Huangdi a tough or weak emperor?
he buried them alive
How did Shi Huangdi respond to those scholars who opposed his decision to burn books?
he made that territory weak by destroying its walls to hold out the enemies and by taking away all of their weapons
How did Shi Huangdi ensure that there would be not revolts in the new territories that his armies conquered?
He claimed all the power and did not share if with the lords (nobles)
How did Shi Huangdi change the old political system of China?
to control China better by enforcing taxes more easily
Why did Shi Huangdi divide China into counties that were governed by appointed officials
he set up laws that all of China had to follow, he made everyone use the same symbols to write, he made everyone use the same type of money, and had everyone use the same measurement systems
What were some of the Qin dynasty policies that Shi Huangdi enforced?
He wanted everyone to be under his control and he wanted everyone to feel like they were all part of the same culture and identity
Why did Shi Huangdi want all Chinese people to do things the same way?
he punished them severley if they disobeyed
How did Shi Huangdi make sure everyone followed all of his strict laws?
they built roads to make travel easier, water systems were improved, and built an irrigation system to get water to more land for farming, and protected the country from invasion by building the Great Wall of China
What were some achievements of the Qin dynasty?
The Great Wall. it was built to keep nomads and warriors from invading China
what is the barrier that linked earlier walls across China's northern frontier? and what was it built for?
even though Shi Huangdi unified China, many people including peasants, scholars, and nobles hated his harsh laws. different sections of the country formed armies and wanted to take control once Shi Huangdi died and they fought each other
How did the Qin dynasty under Shi Huangdi's rule fall or end?
400 years
How long did the Han dynasty last?
Liu Bang
who was the first emperor of the Han dynasty and the first common person to become a Chinese emperor?
He had earned the people's loyalty and trust and both soldiers and peasants liked him
What helped Liu Bang to stay in power?
Liu Bang wanted to free people from harsh government policies. He lowered taxes for farmers and made punishments less severe
How was Liu Bang's government different from Shi Huangdi's government?
He had help from educated officials when he needed to make decisions
Who did Liu Bang rely on to help him rule?
at the time of the Han dynasty
Emperor Wudi ruled during which dynasty?
He took land away from lords, raised taxes, and had control over the grain that the people needed to eat in order to survive
Emperor Wudi wanted to have a stronger government. How did he make sure that this happened?
Confucianism
What was the philosophy of the government during the Han dynasty when Emperor Wudi was in control?
By going to school to learn Confucian ideas and then passing a test about Confucian teachings.
How could a person get a good job in the government during Emperor Wudi's rule?
Only people who had the power and influence to be recommended to work in the government.
Who was able to take the Confucian test to get a good job working in the government?
Society was based on the Confucian system, which divided people into four classes. The upper class, the second class, the artisans, and the merchants.
What type of society existed during the Han dynasty?
merchants because they did not produce anything. they only bought and sold what others made.
who was in the lowest class during the Han dynasty?
the emperor, his court, and scholars who held government positions
who was in the highest class during the Han dynasty?
poorest
Even though the peasants made up the second highest class, they were still the ____ class.
lowest
Some merchants were very wealthy and powerful despite being in the ____ class.
poor peasants living in the countryside
90% of the people living in China during the Han dynasty were __________
they had expensive decorations in their homes like paintings, pottery, bronze lamps, and jade figures. they hired musicians for entertainment. even the tombs of the dead were filled with beautiful, expensive objects
how did the wealthy live during the Han dynasty?
they worked on the land for long hours everyday. during the winter when they didn't have to work on the fields, they were forced to work on building things for the government. they wore plain clothes and mostly ate grains like barely.
how did the poor live during the Han dynasty?
children were taught to respect their elders (even the emperor had to do this), the father was the head of the family and children had to obey them and women had to obey their husbands.
what was the Confucian philosophy about the family?
government jobs
strong familiy ties and having respect for their elders was a very important part of the Han dynasty. What did some men gain by doing this?
Chinese parents valued boys more.
what type of children did Chinese parents want during the Han dynasty? boys or girls?
because sons would carry on the family line and take care of their parents when they were old. but girls would grow up and take care of their husband's family
why did the people of the Han dynasty value boys more than girls?
they became experts at figure painting, painting realistic scenes from everyday life, wrote new styles of poetry, and wrote history books
What were some achievements in art and literature during the Han dynasty?
paper
what is something that the Han dynasty invented which we use every day?
this was an early type of clock. it uses the position of shadows cast by the sun to tell the time of day and it was invented during the Han dynasty
what is a sundial and which dynasty invented it?
it is a device that measures the strength of an earthquake and it was invented by the Han dynasty
what is a seismograph and which dynasty invented it?
it is the practice of inserting extremely thin needles throught the skin at specific points to cure disease or relieve pain and it was invented by the Han dynasty
what is acupuncture and which dynasty invented it?
Qin dynasty
which dynasty used Legalism as a form of government?
Han dynasty
which dynasty based their government on Confucianism?