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AP Gov - Supreme Court Cases - 2015
AP Government, N. Fletcher, Rosary HS
Terms in this set (40)
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
Established judicial review
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
Marylandhas no power to tax establishments of the national government
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
Congress granted the right to interstate commerce
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
states enact "separate but equal" legislation
Schenck v. US (1919)
Court decided that because it was wartime, Shenck's words served as a clear and present danger
Gitlow v. New York
states may prohibit speech and publication if they have a tendency to end badly
Near v. Minnesota (June 1931)
gag law was written under "prior restraint" it violated the 1st amendment and was unconstitutional
Korematsu v. US (1944)
the need to protect against espionage was greater than Korematsu's rights because of "emergency and peril"
Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson. Started desegregation in public education
Roth v. US (1956)
1st amendment was not intended to protect every utterance or form of expression
Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
Established "unreasonable searches and seizures."
Engel v. Vitale (1962)
Set the basis for several subsequent decisions limiting government-directed prayer in school.
Baker v. Carr (1962)
"one man, one vote."
Abbington School District v. Schempp (1963)
the required activities encroached on both the "Free exercise" and "establishment" clause of the 1st amendment since they were "intended" religious ceremonies.
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
everyone who can't afford an attorney, will have one appointed to them, legal counsel
New York Times v. Sullivan (1964)
Established the "Actual malice" standard before public reports can be considered libel or defamation
Heart of Atlanta Motel v. US (1964)
commerce clause allowed them to regulate interstate commerce and activities within a state to outlaw "moral wrongs."
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)
the courts established the right to privacy in marital relations
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
Established the Miranda Rights.
Tinker v. Des Moines (1969)
students are protected by the 1st amendment.
Lemon v. Kurtzman (1972)
the court allowed funds to be distributed and recognized private schools would be in serious financial consequences.
New York Times Co. v US (1971)
article presented no inevitable, direct, and immediate danger imperiling the safety of American forces, prior restraint was unjustified
Miller v. California (1973)
Changed definition of "obscene" to "that which lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value."
Roe v. Wade (1973)
a woman's right to abortion falls under the right of privacy
US v. Nixon (1974)
nothing can sustain an absolute, unqualified, presidential privilege
Buckley v. Valeo (1975)
court guards against "unscrupulous practices" though they found that contributions from personal/family friends can't be limited.
Gregg v. Georgia (1976)
Death sentence is constitutional as long as it is used appropriately
U.C. Regents v. Bakke (1977)
qualified individuals are to be given preference over under-qualified minorities.
Texas v. Johnson (1988)
desecration of an American flag is protected under the First Amendment
Cruzan v. Missouri Department of Health (1990)
people deemed incompetent to make decisions concerning medical treatment are denied ability to do so
Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992)
reaffirmed Roe and established the "husband notification requirement."
US v. Lopez (1995)
possession of a gun is a criminal stature which congress never had power over
Clinton v. New York (1998)
held that legislation that passes both houses of congress must be entirely approved or vetoed
Bush v. Gore (2000)
standard-less manual recounts violate the Equal Protection and Due Process Clauses of the Constitution
US v. Morrison (2000)
Violence against women act didn't regulate anything to do with interstate commerce nor did it redress harm caused by the state
Zelman v. Simmons-Harris (2003)
government was neutral to religion and provided aid to a wide spectrum of of individuals defined by financial need
Gratz v. Bollinger (2003)
held that colleges cannot give applicants extra points towards guaranteed admission for being from an "underrepresented ethnic group."
Grutter v. Bollinger (2003)
Upheld the affirmative action admissions policy
McConnell v. FEC (2003)
Does the "soft money" ban exceed Congress's authority to regulate elections under the Constitution and/or violate the First Amendment's protection of the freedom to speak?
No; money was used to register voters, not for campaign expenditures and had little to do with free speech. Found that the law only violated state elections so it didn't prevent states from creating separate election laws.
Citizens United v. FEC (2010)
Did the Supreme Court's decision in McConnell resolve all constitutional as-applied challenges
to the BCRA when it upheld the disclosure requirements of the statute as constitutional?
No; held that corporate funding of independent political broadcasts in candidate elections cannot be limited; disclosure is justified by a"governmental interest" in providing the "electorate with info"; upheld disclosure requirements for political advertising sponsors; upheld ban on direct contributions to candidates from corporations and unions.