Terms in this set (14)
What are the primary lymphoid organs? What happens in each organ to develop the adaptive immune system? What are the secondary lymphoid organs? What happens in them?
B cells mature in bone marrow
T cells start in bone marrow then go to thymus to mature
• Primary lymphoid: bone, thymus
•Once mature, lymphocytes gather in secondary lymphoid organs and wait to encounter antigen: Lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, adenoids, appendix
What is an antibody/immunoglobulin (Ab/Ig)? What is an antigen (Ag)?
• antibody/immunoglobulin - protein produced by lymphocytes in response to bacteria, viruses, or other antigenic substances.
• An antigen - any substance that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against it/attack it
Describe the differences between a primary adaptive immune response and a secondary adaptive immune response.
primary response - first, slower, IgM
secondary responses - faster, stronger, IgG, IgA, IgM
What is immunological memory? How is it created?
When antigen is encountered a second time the response is faster and more effective - PROTECTIVE IMMUNITY
• A memory cell - sees antigen and becomes an effector/is triggered
Describe differences in how the BCR recognizes/binds Ag versus how the TCR recognizes/binds Ag.
•BCR is specific antibody the B cell is programmed to make
•TCR does not recognize free antigen; must be presented by body's own cells
What is an antigen presenting cell (APC)? What is an MHC? What types of cells can be APCs? Which types of cells express each type of MHC molecules?
• Anitgen presenting cell - antigen presented by another cell (APC) cell that displays foreign antigens on their surfaces;
• major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs) - bind to peptide fragments from pathogens and display them on the cell surface to be seen by T-cells.
• T cells express MHC
What is an epitope? What is a hapten?
• epitope - what is seen and bound by receptor/recognized by immune system, the specific piece of the antigen that an antibody binds to
• Haptens - small molecule that can get immune response only when attached to a large carrier such as a protein
What are the different types of T lymphocytes? What is the function of each type?
Helper t cells - helps activate the other cells in the immune system
cytotoxic t-cells - help to kill infected body cells)
suppressor t-cell - helps to cool down the immune system after an invader has been defeated, so our body won't kill useful cells
What do TC cells do? What MHC do they (usually) use? Which CD protein (4 or 8) do they express?
•Cytotoxic T cells recognize antigen presented on MHC class I molecules
•TC cells usually CD8
What do TH cells do? What MHC do they (usually) use? Which CD proteins (4 or 8) do they express?
•Helper T cells recognize antigen presented on MHC class II molecules
•TH cells usually CD4
How does a B lymphocyte get activated by T-dependent Ag? What happens to a B cell that gets activated?
1. bind antigen
2. get T help by showing T cell the antigen
B cells usually need T help
How do B and T lymphocytes create such a vast repertoire of receptors against so many different Ags?
They can rearrange segments of DNA to create diversity for receptors
How does the adaptive immune system protect against attacking the healthy body ("self")?
• Regulatory T cells to prevent self attacks
What is clonal selection? How does it happen?
B cells only make 1 receptor for specific epitope, the receptor that recognizes epitope are selected and amplified
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