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82 terms

abnormal psych 4

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autogynephilia
Paraphilia characterized by sexual arousal in men at the thought or fantasy of being a woman
cross-gender identification
The desire to be, or the insistence that one is, of the opposite sex
desire phase
phase in human sexual response triggered by whatever prompts sexual interest
dyspareunia
difficult or painful intercourse
exhibitionism
condition in which the patient derives sexual arousal from the exposure of his or her genitals to strangers
excitement phase
phase in human sexual response in which people experience sexual pleasure and notice physiological changes associated with it
female orgasmic disorder
recurring delay or absence of orgasm in some women following a normal sexual excitement phase, relative to their prior experience and current stimulation
female sexual arousal disorder
sexual dysfunction involving an absence of sexual arousal and unresponsiveness to most or all forms of erotic stimulation
fetishism
sexual attraction to nonliving things
gender identity disorder
identification with members of the opposite sex, persistent discomfort with one's biological sexual identity, and strong desire to change to the opposite sex
gender dysphoria
persistent discomfort about one's biological sex or the sense that the gender role of that sex is inappropriate
hypoactive sexual desire disorder
little or no interest in any type of sexual activity
incest
sexual relations between family members
masochism
the deriving of sexual pleasure from being hurt or humiliated
male orgasmic disorder
a sexual disorder in which the man cannot have an orgasm, even though he is highly aroused and has had a great deal of sexual stimulation
paraphilias
sexual disorders in which unconventional objects or situations cause sexual arousal
pedophilia
sexual activity of an adult with a child
premature ejaculation
Persistent or recurrent ejaculation with minimal sexual stimulation before, on, or shortly after penetration, and before he wishes to ejaculate
resolution phase
the fourth phase of the sexual response cycle, following orgasm, during which the body returns to its resting, or normal state
rape
the crime of forcing a woman to submit to sexual intercourse against her will
sexual dysfunction
Impairment in either the desire for sexual gratification or in the ability to achieve it
sexual aversion disorder
extreme and persistent dislike of sexual contact or similar activities
sadism
sexual pleasure obtained by inflicting harm (physical or psychological) on others
transvestic fetishism
Paraphilia in which individuals, usually males, are sexually aroused or receive gratification by wearing clothing of the opposite sex.
transsexualism
individuals who identify with members of the opposite sex (as opposed to acceptance of their own biological sex) and who strongly desire to (and often do) change their sex. In most cases this is gender identity disorder in adults
voyeurism
sexual excitement is achieved by observing unsuspecting people who are naked, undressing, or engaging in sexual activity
vaginismus
In women, involuntary contractions of the muscles surrounding the outer third of the vagina that interfere with penetration and sexual functioning
amnestic syndrome
an impairment of memory due to medical condition (including trauma), substance abuse (ex alcohol) or a combination of both
antipsychotic medication
Prescription drugs that are used to reduce psychotic symptoms; frequently used in the treatment of schizophrenia
alzheimer's disease
an irreversible, progressive brain disorder, characterized by the deterioration of memory, language, and eventually, physical functioning
APOE-4 allele
significantly increases risk for late onset alzheimer's
anterograde amnesia
Inability to store new memories after a traumatic event
amyloid plaques
A structural change in the cerebral cortex associated with Alzheimer's Disease, in which dense deposits of a deteriorated protein called amyloid develop, surrounded by clumps of dead nerve and glial cells
brief psychotic disorder
Psychotic disturbance involving delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized speech or behavior but lasting less than 1 month; often occurs in reaction to a stressor.
cognitive remediation
Training efforts designed to help patients improve their neurocognitive (e.g., memory, vigilance) skills. The hope is that this will also help improve patients' overall levels of functioning
catatonic schizophrenia
A type of schizophrenia marked by striking motor disturbances, ranging from muscular rigidity to random motor activity.
delirium
a usually brief state of excitement and mental confusion often accompanied by hallucinations
delusional disorder
Psychotic disorder featuring a persistent belief contrary to reality (delusion) but no other symptoms of schizophrenia.
delusions
false beliefs that are maintained even though they clearly are out of touch with reality
disorganized schizophrenia
a form of schizophrenia characterized by severe disintegration of personality including erratic speech and childish mannerisms and bizarre behavior
disorganized symptoms
broad category of symptoms that includes poorly organized speech patterns, odd behaviors, unusual dress, or childlike, silly behavior
dopamine hypothesis
Theory that schizophrenia is caused by an excess amount of dopamine in brain. Research has found that medication to reduce dopamine can reduce the positive symptoms of schizophrenia.
dementia
progressive deterioration of brain functioning
Expressed emotion
a pattern of interactions that includes emotional over-involvement, critical comments, and hostility directed toward a patient by family members
early onset alzheimer's disease
caused by rare genetic mutations:
1) APP (amyloid precursor protein) gene: chromosome 21 - also associated with Downs.
2) PS1 & PS2 (presenilin) gene: chromosome 14 &1.
endophenotypes
Measurable characteristics that can give clues regarding the specific genes involved in disorders
glutamate
A major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory.
huntington's disease
A human genetic disease caused by a dominant allele; characterized by uncontrollable body movements and degeneration of the nervous system; usually fatal 10 to 20 years after the onset of symptoms.
HIV associated dementia
A progressive brain deterioration that is caused by infection from the HIV virus
hallucinations
false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
Korsakoff's disease
memory loss due to thiamine deficiency from alcohol
use or poor diet
neurofibrillary tangles
a structural change in the cerebral cortex associated with Alzheimer's disease in which bundles of twisted threads appear that are the product of collapsed neural structures
negative symptoms
Schizophrenic symptoms that involve behavioral deficits, such as flattened emotions, social withdrawal, apathy, impaired attention, and poverty of speech.
organic mental disorders
problems caused by brain pathology (brain damage, diseases of brain, injuries, poison)
positive symptoms
Schizophrenic symptoms that involve behavioral excesses or peculiarities, such as hallucinations, delusions, bizarre behavior, and wild flights of ideas.
paranoid schizophrenia
subtype of schizophrenia characterized by preoccupation with delusions and auditory hallucinations. delusions of persecution, grandeur are common
prodrome
symptoms before the onset of a disease
psychosis
loss of contact with reality, most often evidenced as delusions or hallucinations.
Parkinson's disease
a progressive disease that destroys brain cells and is identified by muscular tremors, slowing of movement, and partial facial paralysis
residual schizophrenia
a subtype of schizophrenic disorder reserved for people who have had at least one previous schizophrenic episode but are now showing an absence of prominent psychotic features; there is continuing evidence of two or more symptoms, such as marked social isolation, peculiar behaviors, blunted affect, odd beliefs or unusual perceptual experiences.
retrograde amnesia
loss of memory for events immediately preceding a trauma
schizoaffective disorder
form of psychotic disorder in which the symptoms of schizophrenia co-occur with symptoms of a mood disorder
schizophreniform disorder
Psychotic disorder involving the symptoms of schizophrenia but lasting less than 6 months.
shared psychotic disorder
A psychotic disorder in which one or more people develop a delusional system as a result of a close relationship with a psychotic person who is delusional.
traumatic brain injuries
brain damage resulting from physical trauma, particularly blunt trauma to the head
undifferentiated schizophrenia
mixture of symptoms and does not meet the diagnostic criteria for any one type of schizophrenia
vascular dementia
The deterioration of functioning and cognitive capacities caused by a series of minor strokes that cut off the blood supply to areas of the brain; also called multi-infarct dementia.
triolism
sexual pleasure from watching others have sex
frotteurism
gratification from touching or rubbing up against others
telephone scatologia
making obscene calls for sexual gratification
neologisms
use of new words
clanging
string of rhyming , sound alike words
stereotypy
repetitive purposeless behavior
alogia
loss of words or lack of responsiveness in conversation
erotomania
delusions of love, often involve someone famous
capgras syndrome
belief that a known person is an imposter/double
encephalitus
inflammation of the brain
creutzfeldt-Jacob
mad cow. widespread degeneration of the brain
meningitis
acute inflammation of the meninges
neurosyphilis
deterioration of brain tissue, often resulting in general pareisis
infarction
blockage of blood supply to the brain
graves' disease
excessive release of thyroxin can result in motor agitation and symptoms similar to anxiety