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Florida Basic Recruit High Liability Chapter 4: Defensive Tactics

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Defensive Tactics
a system of controlled defensive and offensive body movements used by criminal justice officers
What should a student do to maximize the benefit if DT training?
Eat a nutritious diet
Get adequate rest
Stay sufficiently hydrated
Cardiovascular Training
Any exercise that elevates the heart rate to a range between 60% to 85% of the maximum rate.
Heart Disease
The leading cause of premature death for both men and women.
Chapter 776 F.S.
Governs all use of force by criminal justice officers.
Applies equally to Corrections and Correctional Probation Officers
Apprehend a Subject and make an Arrest
One of the two general areas in which an officer's use of force is justified
Defend Self or Others
One of the two general areas in which an officer's use of force is justified
Objective Reasonableness
the process for evaluating the appropriateness of an officer's response to a subject's resistance.
Appropriate Force
the amount of force reasonably necessary to make an arrest.
Graham v. Connor
determined that the reasonableness of a particular use of force must be judged from the perspective of how a reasonable officer on the scene would respond, rather than from the 20/20 perspective of hindsight.
The Supreme Court has made clear
that use of force is a seizure under what Amendment?
Fourth Amendment
Correctional officers must also consider that use of force may violate which Amendment with regards to cruel and unusual punishment?
Eighth Amendment
Much litigation against criminal justice officers is not about the amount of force used, but what?
Whether the use of
force was permitted at all.
Compliance
the verbal and/or physical yielding to an officer's authority without apparent threat of resistance or violence.
Escalation
increasing the use of force or resistance
De-escalation
decreasing the use of force or resistance
Disengagement
discontinuing a command or physical use of force
Force Guidelines
provide a framework for making decisions involving the reasonable use of force
by criminal justice officers.
Passive resistance
a subject's verbal and/or physical refusal to comply with an officer's lawful direction
causing the officer to use physical techniques to establish control.
Active resistance
a subject's use of physically evasive movements directed toward the officer such as bracing, tensing, pushing, or pulling to prevent the officer from establishing control over the subject.
Aggressive resistance
a subject's attacking movements toward an officer that may cause injury but are not
likely to cause death or great bodily harm to the officer or others.
Deadly force resistance
a subject's hostile, attacking movements with or without a weapon that create a
reasonable perception by the officer that the subject intends to cause and has the capability of causing death or great bodily harm to the officer or others.
Command presence and
verbal communication
Can often be used to defuse volatile situations without escalating to force.
Types of Physical Force
physical control, the use of nonlethal weapons, and deadly force.
Physical control
achieving compliance or custody through the use of empty-hand or leverage-enhanced techniques, such as pain compliance, transporters, restraint devices, takedowns, and striking techniques.
nonlethal weapon
a weapon that is not fundamentally designed to cause death or great bodily harm. Examples: ECD, Taser, expandable batons, flashlights, and chemical agent sprays.
Deadly force
is force that is likely to cause death or great bodily harm. Some examples of deadly force include use of a firearm, eye gouges, empty-hand strikes to the throat, and impact-weapon strikes to the side of
the neck.
What Are the factors for deciding the Use of Deadly Force?
Ability
Opportunity
Intent
Ability
refers to the subject having the means to carry out his or her intent to cause death or great bodily harm.
Opportunity
means the subject is capable of acting on a plan to cause death or great bodily harm to the officer or others.
Intent
a reasonably perceived, imminent threat to an officer or another person based on the subject's actions, behaviors, words, or other indicators.
Totality of circumstances
a term the court uses to refer to all facts and circumstances known to the officer at the time, or reasonably perceived by the officer as the basis for, a use of force decision.
What are the two things that the court looks at to determine Totality of Circumstances?
Was the decision objectively reasonable.
Was the decision legally justified.
Situational Factors for Totality of Circumstances
• severity of the crime
• subject is an immediate threat
• subject's mental or psychiatric history, if known to the officer
• subject's violent history, if known to the officer
• subject's combative skills
• subject's access to weapons
• innocent bystanders who could be harmed
• number of subjects versus number of officers
• duration of confrontation
• subject's size, age, weight, and physical condition
• officer's size, age, weight, physical condition, and defensive tactics expertise
• environmental factors, such as physical terrain, weather conditions, etc.
Survival Stress
A measure of anxiety caused by an appraisal of a stimulus that leads to an extreme state
of arousal.
Appraisal
The officer's evaluation and assignment of challenge or threat value to a stimulus.
Arousal
the officer's elevated mind-body state that occurs in the presence of a perceived challenge or threat.
What are the four instinctual reactions to survival stress:
fight, flight, posture, and submit.
Submit
To completely relinquish control to another.
Psychological Changes Under Stress
•Activation of Limbic System(part of brain controlling emotion & motivation)
•Activation of Fight or Flight Response by the Sympathetic Nervous System
•Domination of the Parasympathetic Nervous System by the Sympathetic Nervous System for SELF PROTECTION
Limbic System
(the parts of the brain that are especially focused on emotion and motivation) that
provides a survival response to the central nervous system.
Sympathetic Nervous System
the part of the autonomic nervous system that is concerned especially with preparing the body to react to situations of stress or emergency. This system activates what is often called the fight or flight response.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
sometimes called the rest and digest system, is the part of the autonomic
nervous system that is concerned with controlling the body during normal, routine situations. Can be dominated by the Sympathetic Nervous System for SELF PROTECTION
Physiological Changes Under Stress
• Increase in heart rate and respiration.
• Vasodilation
• Vasoconstriction
• Auditory Distortion
• Visual Distortion
• Loss of bladder and bowel control
• Increased Reaction Time
Vasodilation
Blood flows into the larger muscle groups providing oxygen to power flight and aid
in escape.
Vasoconstriction
Blood flow is restricted from the extremities and skin. The body pulls the blood away from the arms and legs into the torso. This keeps the blood near vital organs in case of emergency and
also protects the arms and legs (our weapons) from losing blood in case of injury.
Auditory Distortion
Hearing may be diminished or amplified.
Visual Distortion
Officers may as see darkness around the edges of their vision (tunnel vision). Officers may also lose the ability to see
close objects with detail (farsightedness).
Eye gaze
the tendency of your eyes to fixate to one location.
Fine motor skills
refer to the muscle control required to make small, precise movements, such as unlocking handcuffs with a key.
Gross motor skills
the movements of the large or major muscles of the body, which are used in tasks such as running, punching, or kicking.
Complex motor skills
combine fine and gross motor skills using hand and eye coordination timed to a single event, such as driving a vehicle.
Perceptual Time Distortion
Occurrences seem to be faster or slower than they actually are.
Perceptual Space Distortion
Objects appear to be closer or farther than they actually are.
Heuristics
• mental shortcuts that allow people to solve problems and make judgments quickly and efficiently.
• based on past training and experience.
exhilaration speech
officers who are in a state of high arousal later regret or do not recall the things they have said during this period of anxiousness
Condition White
• Unaware that a threat exists
• Attention is unfocused or preoccupied, and the officer is oblivious to potential danger in his or her environment.
• Example: A person drives to work and does not remember the drive (automatic pilot).
Condition Yellow
**Desired State for Officers**
• General awareness of possible threats
• Attention is focused, and the officer scans the environment for potential threats.
• Example: While on the job, an officer is in a state of relaxed awareness and notices what is going on around him or her.
Condition Orange
• Recognition that a threat exists
• Awareness of a specific
threat encourages pre-planning and more intense focus. Physical indicators of stress may become evident.
• Example: A correctional officer observes an inmate with possible contraband and begins formulating a plan of action.
Condition Red
• Specific threat identified and appropriate actions taken
• The threat is assessed and managed through intensified cognitive and physical reactions. Survival stress functions become optimum.
• Example: The correctional officer initiates the plan to engage the inmate.
Condition Black
• Threat mismanaged due to panicked stress response
• Survival stress functions break down. Submission or freezing may occur.
• Example: The correctional officer panics and may not respond effectively.
critical incident amnesia
a temporary or sometimes permanent condition where officers experience short and long-term memory loss.
• During: diminished ability to process other information.
• After: inability to remember information observed during the incident.
• vulnerable to false memories and unintentional fabrications that they use to link flash memories of the critical incident.
Coping with the Effects of Survival Stress
• pre-plan
• stay physically fit
• get adequate rest
• eat a nutritious diet
• use controlled breathing techniques
• rely on techniques that involve gross motor movements rather than fine motor skills
• train under realistic environmental conditions designed to mirror high-stress
scenarios
• anticipate the possibility of resistance with every subject encounter
• maintain proficiency in physical and mental skills
• maintain proficiency with firearms and other issued equipment
Balance
your head and hips must be aligned and your weight distributed evenly between your feet.
Balance displacement
a controlling technique used to break the subject's balance through the use of leverage principles.
Leverage
using a great force against a weaker resistance. It is used in conjunction with joint manipulation and/or pain and mechanical compliance in order to gain control.
Pain compliance
a subject's response to a combination of pain and verbal commands to stop resisting.
Mechanical compliance
applying pressure or leverage on a joint by locking it up so that no movement of the joint is possible, causing the subject to comply with verbal direction.
Joint manipulation
bending or twisting a joint in a direction that will cause pain or discomfort to the joint.
Motor dysfunction
an incapacitation technique that causes temporary impairment of muscular control.
Fluid shock principle
strikes are delivered utilizing penetration so that the striking object stays on or indented in the target for an instant allowing for energy transfer. When a major muscle mass is struck this way, it displaces the water content in the muscle and penetrates the nerves within, creating a
shock wave.
Verbal cues
include abnormal stuttering, serious and specific swearing, and specific verbal threats.
Nonverbal cues
include the following:
• increased breathing and pulse rates
• cessation of all movement
• clenched fists and quivering hands
• refusal to show palms of hands
• reddened or flushed face
• expanding veins showing prominently on face and forearms
• shifting of shoulders or change of stance
• target glance
• ignoring the officer
• rapid, angry movements
Excited Delirium
• a state of extreme mental and physiological excitement characterized by exceptional agitation and hyperactivity, overheating, excessive tearing of the eyes, hostility, superhuman strength, aggression, acute paranoia, and endurance without apparent fatigue"
• subject could die suddenly and without explanation, a death sometimes
referred to as Sudden Death Syndrome.
Officer presence
your ability to convey to subjects and onlookers that you are able and ready to take control.
Command presence
• the way you carry yourself.
• projects an image of confidence in your skills and abilities to perform the task at hand.
• include personal appearance (uniform and personal grooming), erect posture, and alertness and attention to surroundings.
Relative positioning
describes an officer's position in relation to the subject.
Body movement
refers to how you approach a subject or enter a scene.
slide step
used when preparing to engage or disengage from a subject in close proximity.
reactionary gap
• distance you must keep between you and the subject in order to react effectively against a sudden threat.
**within 25 feet**
danger zone
area within the reactionary gap
**within 6-9 feet**
Visual control
ability to see both the subject's hands and to know that those hands hold no weapons.
Reaction time principle
the amount of time it takes for the brain to process a physical threat and the body to respond.
Evasion
shifting your body or side stepping to avoid the attack
Redirection
using the hands to move the subject away.
Direct line of attack
the direction that the subject comes from.
Communication
the exchanging of information through verbal and nonverbal methods which provides valuable insight into the likelihood of cooperation and compliance of a subject.
Dialogue
a controlled, non-emotional communication between an officer and a
subject aimed at problem solving and communication.
Verbal direction
use of proper, clear, and concise commands to let a subject know what you need or expect him or her to do.
Touch
nonthreatening, noncustodial physical contact and can be used to support
or emphasize a verbal command.
Pressure points
techniques used to control resistant behavior by using pain compliance.
touch pressure
touching the location of a nerve or sensitive area and applying continual, uninterrupted pressure with the tip of the finger(s) or thumb until the subject complies.
stabilization
immobilizing the subject's head so the subject cannot move or escape.
escort
a technique used to move a subject from one point to another without using pain compliance.
come-along holds
another name for transporters
Transporters
techniques used to move a
subject from one point to another with pain compliance and/or mechanical compliance.
Restraint devices
tools designed to temporarily restrain a subject's movements
Handcuffs
temporary restraining devices used frequently to control a subject.
prone position
lying on the stomach face down
search
a government intrusion into a place in which a person has a reasonable expectation of privacy.
pat down
a physical frisk of a subject conducted in a predetermined pattern to locate weapons.
Reasonable suspicion
facts or circumstances which reasonably
indicate that the person has committed, is committing, or is about to commit a violation of the law.
plain feel doctrine
the officer may seize any object "whose contour or mass" he or she identifies as apparent contraband.
custodial search technique
used when a subject is taken into custody in an unsecured environment. Unlike the pat down, this is a complete search of the subject.
quadrant search approach
dividing the body into four sections
horizontally and vertically
Types of Inmate Searches
Clothed Search
Strip/Unclothed Search
Body Cavity Search
Blocks
reactionary techniques using the arms, legs, or body to deflect or redirect an
impending strike from a subject to areas of the body.
empty-hand striking technique
any impact technique using hands, arms,
elbows, feet, legs, knees, or head to strike a subject in an offensive or defensive situation.
Throat
The only place where an empty hand strike is considered Deadly Force
snap-back
retracted very quickly, thus enabling multiple strikes, creating distance, setting up the next techniques, and causing distraction to the subject.
Distraction
technique that interrupts the subject's
concentration so that energy is redirected from the current focus.
Takedowns
techniques used to bring a resisting subject from a standing position to the ground making it easier to control him.
Grappling
the use of body mechanics to leverage or control a subject.
vascular neck restraint
a physical restraint compressing certain veins and arteries in the neck to cause a subject to lose consciousness for a brief period of time.
Posting
supporting the balance of the body
using a limb.
shrimping
movement in a hip escape
supine position
lying on the back face up
Stalling
a tactical method of safely controlling a suspect until you physically recover or reassess the situation, or backup arrives.
Intermediate weapons
tools used when empty-handed control is ineffective, but the subject's level of resistance does not merit deadly force.
impact weapon
• any object used for striking.
• may disable or cause temporary motor dysfunction.
Temporary motor dysfunction
a type of incapacitation that causes temporary impairment of muscle control, such as a charley horse.
weapons of opportunity
Any item an officer has at hand may be used as a potential impact weapon when needed
interview stance with an impact weapon
a low profile stance with the
weapon held partially hidden behind the leg.
offensive ready stance with an impact weapon
a high profile stance with the weapon held at a shoulder position to enable a rapid strike.
Side of Neck, Head, Throat & Groin
Deadly Force areas when using an impact weapon
Electronic control devices (ECD)
weapons that use a battery-powered current of electricity.
electronic immobilization
devices
another name for Electronic control devices (ECD)
oleo-resin capsicum (OC)
one of the two primarily used chemical agents used to control resistant subjects
orthochlorobenzal-malononitrile (CS)
one of the two primarily used chemical agents used to control resistant subjects
pepper spray
common name for OC , an inflammatory agent that causes tearing and involuntary closing of the eyes, nasal discharge, sneezing, disorientation, and a sensation of respiratory distress
Scoville Heat Units
scale was originally designed for determining the heat properties (burning sensation) of peppers for the restaurant industry. Used to determine heat value of OC.
Physical Decontamination
Strobing
Breathing
Removing Contaminants
Air
Water
Decontamination solutions
Strobing
forcefully blinking the eyes using all the muscles in the face, including those in
the forehead. This forceful blinking helps clear the vision and activates the tear ducts. Tears help clear the eyes
and wash away particles of contaminant.
Breathing
concentrate on this to draw his attention from the burning sensation
Surprise
Do not telegraph to the subject that you plan to counterattack.
Telegraphing
small eye, hand, or foot movements in the direction that you plan to move.
Action is faster than reaction
When you enter the danger zone to deal with a subject, you are the initiator. The subject must react to your threat.
Verbal distraction
Reaction time increases when a subject processes two or more pieces of information at the same time. For example, ask the subject a question immediately prior to taking action.
Physical proximity
To initiate this technique, the subject's handgun must be within arm's reach.
Evade, Secure, Redirect, Control
Defensive Movements against a spontaneous, close-quarter, edged weapon attack
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