An interdisciplinary field dedicated to the study of human attitudes, behavior, and performance in organizations.
The tendency of people to help one another and put in extra effort that goes beyond job requirements to contribute to the organizations success.
A cognitive and affective evaluation that predisposes a person to act a certain way
Three Components of Attitudes
Thoughts, feelings, behaviors
A positive attitude toward one's job
The employees loyalty to and engagement with the organization
A psychological discomfort that occurs when individuals recognize inconsistencies in their own attitudes and behaviors
The cognitive process people use to make sense out of the environment by selecting, organizing, and interpreting information from the environment
The process by which people screen and select the various stimuli that attract to their attention
Errors in perceptual judgment that arise form inaccuracies in any part of the perceptual process
The tendency to assign a person to a group or broad category then attribute generalizations about the group to the individual
This occurs when the perceiver develops an overall impression of a person or situation based on one characteristic either favorable or unfavorable
The tendency of perceivers to see their own personal traits in other people, they project their own needs, feelings, values, and attitudes into their judgment of others.
The tendency of perceivers to protect themselves against ideas, objects, or people that are threatening, sometimes referred to as blind spots or things people do not want to recognize
Judgments about what caused a person's behavior, something about the person or something about the situation. A cause and effect type of behavior
Types of Attributions
Distinctiveness- the particular behavior is unusual for that person, people will make an external attribution; Consistency- the person involved has a history of behaving in the same way, an internal attribution; Consensus- people tend to respond the same way in similar situations, an external attribution.
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors on another's behavior and to overestimate the influence of internal factors. When someone is promoted they tend to look at only the internal factors and not the external factors.
Extroversion Personal Trait
The degree to which a person is outgoing, sociable, assertive, and comfortable with interpersonal relationships.
Agreeableness Personal Trait
The degree to which a person is able to get along with others by being good natured, likeable, cooperative, forgiving, understanding, and trusting.
Conscientiousness Personal Trait
The degree to which a person is focused on a few goals, and thus behaving in ways that are responsible, dependable, persistent, and achievement oriented.
Emotional Stability Personal Trait
The degree to which a person is calm, enthusiastic, and self confident, rather than tense, depressed, moody, or insecure.
Openness to Experience Personal Trait
The degree to which a person has a broad range of interests, imaginative, creative, artistically sensitive, and willing to consider new ideas.
Locus of Control
The tendency to place the primary responsibility for one's success or failure either within oneself (internally) or on outside forces (externally).
A belief that power and status differences should exist within the organization
The acquisition of power and the manipulation of other people purely for personal gain
Type A Behavior
People that have high energy, seek positions of power and responsibility, which like extreme competitiveness, are impatient, aggressive, and have strong devotion to work.
Type B Behavior
People who tend to be in less stress related situations, and work and live in a more balanced, relaxed lifestyle.
Uncertainty about what behaviors are expected of a person in a particular situation.
This occurs when a person perceives incompatible demands from others.
like to control the situation while
accept the direction given by others.
First observe information via the senses, second screen the information and selecting what to process, lastly organize the selected data into patterns for interpretation and response