ESS Topic 3
Terms in this set (55)
Renewable and non-renewable
Coal, oil and gas, resources that are finite meaning we can only use them once
Hydroelectric, solar, wind, tidal and geothermal
Pros and cons of fossil fuels
Pros: Relatively Cheap in some places
easy to extract
high energy output
Cons: Finite resource
Produces CO2 and increase global warming
Pros and cons of nuclear power
1 truck of uranium = 1000 trucks of coal
High energy output
Relatively when set up
Dangerous as it is radioactive e.g. Chernobyl
Expensive to set up
Pros and cons of wind power
No emissions once set up
Can produce high amounts of power
Can be placed off-shore out of sight
Only works when there's wind
Why is soil texture important?
The texture of soil controls the size and spacing of the air spaces and the water content
Holds the water in the soil
Holds the soil together
Prevents water logging
Investigating soil type and quality
The feel test, sedimentation and the turbidity test
The feel test
Where the scientists feel the texture of the soil
Letting the soil rest in a water body to see its layers of sediments.
Using colorimeter water content.
Ensuring that the soil remains fertile
Recovery, Aerate, Wind and Water and Runoffs
5 soil conservation methods
Contour ploughing, terracing, cover crops, trickle drips and strip cultivation
Soil conservation: Recovery
Cover crops, liming and mulching
Soil conservation: Aerate
Ploughing and contour ploughing
Soil conservation: Wind
Wind reduction and strip cultivation
Soil conservation: Water
Soil conservation: Runoffs
The difference between undernourishment and malnutrition
undernourishment is where people do not get enough food, malnutrition is where people don't get enough nutrients
Compare and contrast terrestrial & aquatic farming systems
- Short food chains: wastes less energy through respiration
- Increasing demand for meat
- Inefficiency: Loads of ceareal crops go into animals
- Longer food changes: wastes more energy through respiration
- Prawn farming has destroyed 30% of the worlds costal mangroves. Declines fish productivity on the coral reefs
-Primary produces are less efficient due to absorption and inflexion in the water.
Choose two food systems and compare and contrast them
Intensive beef farming in france and nomadic farming in northern africa.
- Selective breeding and genetic engineering
- Fed entirely in doors
- Lots of energy used in transporting the animals
- Chemical use of fertilisers
- Antibiotics are used (bad for us)
- Live in harsh environments (drought)
- Travell around lots of energy lost to respiration
- Cattle often die
- Value there cattle by amount not quality
Links between social systems & food production
+Population density: Differing agricultural methods depend on density of pop.
-Communism produce goods for the good of the state
-Capitalist democracy produce goods for their own personal gain
-Selective breeding e.g. cash crops, to make money and not to provide for themselves.
-Farmers are exploited
Slash and burn in the amazon
-Supports low pop
-Used as a crop rotation method Ash acts as fertiliser
-No technological assistance
-No bank loans no subsidies
- Extremely hazardous, loss of biodiversity,
- Nutrients is lost to the air and makes C02
Intensive subsistance farming Chinese rice paddies
-Supports high pop
-Requires little money
-High rainfall and high temperatures are a suitable environment for rice crop
-The water logged soil produces methane, however it produces less carbon and much less land use no need for crop rotation
Intensive commercial farming of chickens in the US
-Supports high pop
-Mass produces food
-Genetic engineering/selective breeding
-Huge costs on constructions and maintenance
-All about the money
Problems: Produces high amounts of CO2, deforestation, more fertilisers and anti-biotics. Less bio-diversity mono crop
Water Wars Causes
Water Wars Israel Palestine
Attacking each others water supplies and trying to occupy the river Jordan for dominance. Clash of cultures resulted in the 6 day war. Contamination of clean water killed more people than the actual wars.
We are pumping up to 15x water out of the earth than what is going into it.
Problems with deforestation and water
Forests that once held the water has been logged, we are losing masses and masses of water as the water cant drain and stay in the ground.
Problems with dams
Dammed rivers fail to carry nutrients down stream. All of a sudden we have eutrophication where water losses its oxygen. We are creating a situation where we get less water from the hydrogen cycle.
Carrying the capacity
The max number of individuals that an environment can sustain over a period of time.
Difficult to reach carrying capacity?
Greater range of resources, we can replace resources e.g. coal with petrol, we can use resources differently and major developments in technology also help. Imports and exports, we have a global community
Different environmental view points
Ecocentric - Reduce the use of non-renewable resources
Technocentric - technology innovation
Economists - Trade and technology can increase carrying capacity
4 R's in carrying capacity
Reuse (same water bottle)
Recycle (cans into planes)
Remanufacture (Used paper back into paper)
Reductions (Use less petrol)
The amount of land demanded to sustain your lifestyle and to assimilate your waste.
Calculating ecological footprint
Land required food (ha) + Land required to absorb CO2
Food consumption/Food production per hectare
CO2 emissions/net carbon fixation per hectare
= 5.55 ha
MEDC ecological footprint
Higher grain consumption as they produce meat and other products.
MEDCs are dependent on fossil fuels
Low grain consumption as they directly consumer cereal produce.
Suited climates and sometimes have high productivity
High rates of fixation being situated near the equator
Rate of natural increase
Crude death rate
The number of deaths per thousand individuals
Crude birth rate
The number of births per thousand individuals
Is the number of births per thousand women of child bearing age per year between the ages of 19-45
The amount of time it takes for a pop to double
Show pop change over a period of time
Stage one: High births, high deaths, low pop
two: Declining births, rapidly declining deaths, pop grows
three: declining births, declining deaths, growing pop
four: stationary birth and deaths, pop limit.
Categories of natural capital
Renewable - Timber
Replenishable - Water
Non-renewable - Gold
What a country generates on top of its existing capital
Bow & arrow --> Nuclear power
It's value to the environment
Whale hunting. Commercial vs sustainable
Is sustainability a global or local issue?
Both. All resources are interlinked but these resources need to be managed on a local level. This brings about trading around the world.
A nations ability to develop without using their natural capital
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