The duty of a company to create wealth in ways that do not harm society and that protect society's assets is called corporate social responsibility
Corporate social responsibility is primarily a management theory rather than a political theory
During the Progressive era in U.S. history, business managers were considered to be "trustees" of their local communities
Conservative economists believe that businesses act most responsibly when they make a profit in efficient ways and that they should not be involved in "social projects
Milton Friedman believes that managers are "employees" of the owners of the company for which they work
Friedman believes that the sole objective of management should be to maximize the company's profits
The idea that the sole responsibility of a corporation is to optimize profits while still obeying the law is called Friedmanism
It is possible to rank corporations objectively in terms of their social responsibility actions
In international law, when one country exercises jurisdiction over actions that occur within another country, it is called extraterritoriality
Soft law refers to statements of philosophy, policy and principle found in nonbonding international conventions
In the realm of international law,"hard law" is found mainly in treaties and creates prohibitions and duties
When an industry receives a lot of complaints from critics, it sometimes sets up its own industry code of conduct
One of the reasons that industries like to create their own codes of conduct is that the organization that supervises the actions of member organizations is likely to be lenient to these members in terms of the strict enforcement of the code
The Global Compact defines both specific data for measuring performance and procedures for compiling reports
NGOs, working through the UN, gained power by fabricating hard laws to raise expectations of corporate behavior and then attacked the reputations of noncompliant firms
The duty of a corporation to avoid harm to the assets of society is called
Corporate social responsibility
These are people who believe in the maximum freedom to act or use property without interference by others, especially government
The idea that corporations have duties that go beyond their economic functions is a fundamental tenet in
Corporate social responsibility
The idea that charitable giving interferes with the natural evolutionary process in which society improves itself is a fundamental tenet in
All of the following statements about social Darwinism are true EXCEPT:
It is a philosophy of the late 1900s
When a corporation wants to give charitable gifts but its charter does not state that this type of action is permitted, the idea that these gifts are "beyond the law" is called:
The idea that managers help society by making their companies profitable is called:
The service principle.
All of the following statements were the interrelated themes of broader responsibility that emerged during the Progressive era EXCEPT:
Managers concentrated more on promoting their self-interests.
Businesses are most responsible when they make a profit efficiently and do not spend their energies on "social projects". The best-known advocate of this view is:
This is a concentric circle of clear-cut responsibility for efficient execution of the economic function resulting in products, jobs and economic growth.
Identify the concentric circle of responsibility that encompasses responsibility to exercise economic function with a sensitive awareness of changing social values and priorities.
This concentric circle of responsibility outlines newly emerging and still amorphous responsibilities that business should assume to improve the social environment, even if they are not directly related to specific business processes.
The idea that the sole responsibility of a business is to maximize profits while acting within the law is a fundamental tenet in:
These are initiatives required either by government regulation or civil regulation.
When a worthwhile action of a company goes above and beyond what is required by government regulations, it is called a(n):
When a company reduces its pollution output below the level required by government regulations, it is an example of a(n):
When Benetton conducted an anti-death-penalty advertising campaign in the U.S., it was an example of a(n):
When society pays a cost that is caused by a company but this cost is not paid by the company or its customers, it is called a(n):
When a factory dumps toxic waste into a stream, it is an example of what type of cost to society?
When a company exercises jurisdiction over the actions of another company that occur within another country, it is called:
These are statements of policy found in non-binding international statements that serve as guidelines for interpreting hard law
The declaration adopted by the General Assembly of the UN in 1948 that recognizes equal rights for all members of the human family is the:
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
According to the text, these are formal statements of aspirations, principles, guidelines and rules for corporate behavior.
Codes of conduct
All of the following statements are true of codes of conduct EXCEPT:
They arise from a single source
This is the practice of a corporation publishing information about its economic, social and environmental performance
These are symbols displayed on or with products to certify that the product or its production process, meets a set of social responsibility criteria
Payment of wages to small, marginal agricultural producers in developing nations sufficient to allow sustainable farming and labor practices is known as:
According to the text, this is a model of the methods an organization can use to achieve certain goals.
The duty of a company to protect the assets of the society in which it operates is part of its
corporate social responsibility
The idea that the sole responsibility of a company is to maximize its profits within the law is called
An action of a company that goes above and beyond the legal or regulatory requirements of the law is called a(n)
When a nation applies its laws within the borders of another nation, it is called
refers to statements of philosophy, policy and principle found in nonbonding international conventions
. In the realm of international law, _____ are found mainly in treaties, creating binding rights, prohibitions and duties.
The declaration passed by the UN in 1948 that recognized equal rights for all people on earth was called the _____.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
A progressive business model is one in which the central strategy for creating value is based on meeting market demands.
An international effort to develop uniform standards for company reports was developed and called the GRI.
The state in which company social policies, processes and actions are visible to external observers is called opacity.
The guideline that requires companies to prepare social reports that can be verified by outsiders is called transparency.
The triple bottom line has become the most accepted approach to CSR reporting because it can satisfy a range of demanding stakeholders.
The most effective assurance that information in a corporate sustainability report is correct is provided by independent, external auditors.
A company's concern for the welfare of society expressed by monetary gifts intended to advance social welfare is called philanthropy.
A company's charitable giving program is a traditional dimension of its corporate social responsibility
The desire to help other people without any expectation of receiving something in return for this help is called altruism.
Corporate philanthropy is a large part of overall private philanthropy in the U.S. every year.
When a company changes it philosophy of giving money to charitable organizations from pure generosity to commercial objectives, it is called strategic philanthropy
When a company links its charitable giving efforts to a social cause, it is called event marketing.
Cause-related marketing is a variant of strategic philanthropy in which charitable contributions are based on purchases of a service.
In high-engagement philanthropy, givers fund the incubation of new charitable organizations with unique approaches to social problems.
The statement of how a business will create value by selling something in the marketplace is called:
A business model.
. A traditional business model:
Is one in which the central strategy for creating value is based on meeting market demands
A progressive business model:
Defines a strategy that meets market needs by mitigating social problems
Companies can manage their responses to social pressures by moving through a process of:
The basic purpose of a company that defines the type of business in which the company is engaged in and explains how it differs from its competitors is called a(n):
. As a first step in implementing corporate social responsibility a corporation should:
Assess its current situation and activities
When Hershey Foods states that its purpose is "to consistently create shareholder value by achieving excellence in every aspect of our business," this is called its:
Which of the following defines the business, differentiates it from competitors, explains relationships with stakeholders and focuses energy on critical activities and goals?
Which of the following statements about a CSR review is false?
It explores regulatory requirements, but cannot examine competitors' initiatives.
Which of the following sketches stakeholders in categories and depicts their relationship to the firm?
Which of the following is a relevant categorization of stakeholders according to their orientation to the firm?
High, medium or low influence.
According to the text, this is a basic approach, method or plan for achieving an objective.
Tasks like revising or creating policies, budgeting resources and assigning work are a part of the:
This is the state in which company social policies, processes and actions are visible to external observers.
This is the economic growth that meets the needs of the present without consuming social and environmental resources in way that harms future generations.
This is an ideal of economic growth that can "meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs."
The standard that uses economic, environmental and social performance indicators that are based on GRI standards is called the:
Triple bottom line
The purpose of this concept is to appraise the overall impact of a firm's operations, by adding non-financial measures to traditional financial results.
Triple bottom line
In terms of GRI indicators, which of the following is an environmental performance indicator?
Materials used by weight and volume.
All of the following statements are examples of economic performance indicators in the triple bottom line EXCEPT:
. In terms of GRI indicators, which of the following is an economic performance indicator?
Number of jobs supported in the supply chain.
All of the following are examples of environmental performance indicators in the triple bottom line EXCEPT:
Verification by audit that information in a corporate sustainability report is correct is known as:
All of the following are examples of social performance indicators in the triple bottom line EXCEPT:
Total amount of employee wages and benefit
When a company gives monetary gifts to society in order to advance social welfare, it is called:
In 2003, U.S. charitable giving was about $250 billion. The largest proportion of this giving was by:
Which of the following is a traditional, passive form of corporate philanthropy characterized by donations to multiple worthy causes without any relationship to business strategy?
When a corporation aligns its charitable strategy with its business strategy, it is known as:
Which of the following is a variant of strategic philanthropy in which charitable contributions are based on purchases of a product?
When American Express Co. advertised that it would donate 3 cents per transaction to nonprofit anti-hunger groups over a two-month period for all charges against its credit card, it was an example of:
In venture philanthropy:
Givers fund the incubation of new charitable organizations with unique approaches to social problems.
High-engagement philanthropy is one in which:
The donor may set goals for the recipient charity and become involved in achieving them.
. The statement of how a business will create value by selling a good or service in the marketplace is called a(n) _____ model.
When The Body Shop states: "We will dedicate our business to the pursuit of social and environmental change" it is part of the company's _____.
To create _____ for performance, incentives can be set up to encourage achievement of goals and targets.
An international attempt to develop uniform standards for company reports was called the _____.
Global Reporting Initiative
When an activist group claims that a company's self-report of its impact on society cannot be validated by outsiders, it is another way of saying that this report is not _____.
When a company gives a monetary gift to a social institution in an attempt to improve the social welfare of its community, it is called _____.
The desire to help someone in need without any expectation of receiving something in return from them is called _____.
When a company aligns its charitable giving program with its commercial objectives, it is called _____.
The scientific process of discovering and weighing the dangers posed by pollutants is called risk management.
The process of deciding what action to take regarding specific risks of pollutants is called risk assessment.
Theoretically, risk assessment is a scientific process that leads to an objective, quantitative measure of the risks posed by any substance.
The process of establishing a link between a substance and human disease is called hazard assessment.
The link between industrial pollutants and health problems in human beings can be established by epidemiological studies.
A quantitative estimate of how toxic a substance is to human beings at increasing levels of exposure to the substance is called dose-response assessment.
Exposure of the public to toxic substances is typically well above the exposure of workers to these substances.
The study of the amount of a substance human beings can absorb through inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is called exposure assessment.
Regulators are in agreement about how high a risk should be before they must act to reduce it based on quantitative risk estimates.
. Many of U.S. environmental laws are specific about the amount of risk reduction that is required and how it should be achieved.
When regulators set up specific rules for carrying out congressional requirements for control of pollutants, there is very little latitude for regulators in creating these rules.
The economic consequences of different approaches to the regulation of pollutants can be estimated through cost-benefit studies.
Cost-benefit studies of the regulation of risks from pollutants show which alternative would be best in terms of non-economic criteria such as the political consequences of each alternative.
Cost-benefit analysis of the regulation of risks from pollutants imply that ethical duties can be balanced against the utilitarian benefits to society.
A cause of high pollution-abatement costs is the heavy reliance on command-and-control regulations.
Advocates of the environmental tax reform believe that substituting revenue from green taxes for revenue from taxes on productivity pays a double dividend.
A major drawback of the cap-and-trade program is that it cannot achieve the same net reduction in pollution at a lower cost than command-and-control rules.
Projects that compensate for all or part of a company's greenhouse gas emissions by eliminating the CO2 equivalent of those emissions from another source are known as cap-and-trade programs.
Information disclosure about environmental performance harnesses market forces by affecting consumer perceptions and equity prices
An environmental management system is a set of methods and procedures for calculating and comparing the costs and benefits of a proposed regulation.
Pollution prevention is the modification of industrial processes to eliminate contaminants before they are created.
Risk is the probability that a harm will occur and it is typically measured on a scale that ranges between:
Zero and absolute certainty.
In theory, _____ is a scientific process leading to an objective, quantitative measure of the risks posed by any substance.
The process of deciding which regulatory action to take regarding the specific risks of pollution is called:
Attempting to establish a link between a chemical substance and human disease is called:
A statistical study of sickness rate and death rate related to hazards in a sample of humans is called a(n):
These methods of identifying hazards have the advantage of measuring real human illness, but have low statistical power and are riddled with uncertainties
A quantitative estimate of how toxic a substance is to human beings at increasing levels of exposure is called:
The EPA model for public exposure to toxic substances which assumes that there will be a proportionate decrease in cancers from large exposures to small exposures to the substance is called:
Linear dose-response rate
If exposure to a toxic substance decreases by 20 percent, then cancers will decrease by 20 percent for people exposed to this substance is a basic assumption in:
Linear dose-response rate
This method is used to infer the value of an unknown state from the value of another state that is known.
The study of the amount of a substance human beings can absorb through inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is called:
An exposure point greater than zero at which a substance begins to pose a health risk is called a:
. A written statement about a substance summarizing the evidence from prior stages of the risk assessment process to reach an overall conclusion about its risk is known as:
Which of the following observations about risk characterization is true?
It is built on scientific calculations of toxicity, potency and exposure.
The systematic calculation of the costs and benefits of a proposed regulatory action is called:
All of the following are advantages of cost-benefit analysis EXCEPT:
It disciplines thinking as it always results in clear choices.
This provides an artificial but valuable test of efficient resource allocation for regulators not subject to a market mechanism.
When the EPA does a poll in which people are asked to put a dollar amount on nature, this is called:
When legislators want to reduce the risks to health and the environment, the most governmental control over industrial activities can be achieved through:
This control option gives polluters financial motives to control pollution while also giving them flexibility in how reductions are achieved.
. Market incentive regulation
The substitution of revenues from taxes on pollution for revenues from taxes on productivity is known as:
Environmental tax reform
When an overall limit on emissions of a pollutant is set and then the sources of this pollution are given permits allowing a certain amount of pollution to be emitted by each source, this is called a(n):
This is a carbon offset program set up under the Kyoto Protocol, which allows developed countries to meet greenhouse gas reduction pledges by paying for carbon offset projects in developing nations.
Clean development mechanism.
Are projects that compensate for all or part of a company's greenhouse gas emissions by eliminating the CO2 equivalent of those emissions from another source.
. Information disclosure about environmental performance:
Harnesses market forces by affecting consumer perceptions and equity prices.
When legislators want to reduce the risks to health and the environment, the least governmental control over industrial activities can be achieved through:
This is a set of methods and procedures for aligning corporate strategies, policies and operations with principles that protect ecosystems.
This is a standard for environmental management created by the International Organization for Standardization which allows companies to claim state-of-the-art ecological responsibility.
This idea holds that when industrial pollutants pose a risk to human health or ecosystems, even if that threat is poorly understood, prudence calls for restraint.
The precautionary principle.
When industrial processes are modified to eliminate industrial contaminants before they are created, this is called:
The scientific process of discovering and weighing the dangers posed by a pollutant is called
. _____ is the process of deciding which regulatory decision to take to protect the public from a risk posed by a pollutant.
. A statistical survey of human mortality and morbidity in a sample population is called the _____ study
A quantitative estimate of how toxic a chemical substance is to humans at increasing levels of exposure to this substance is called _____.
The study of the amount of a substance that human beings can absorb through inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is called _____.
. _____ is a detailed, written narrative describing the scientific evidence, including areas of ambiguity.
The systematic calculation of the costs and benefits of a proposed regulatory action is called _____.
When the EPA conducts a poll of people and asks them to put a dollar value on some aspect of nature, this is called _____.
A _____ program begins by initially setting an overall limit on emissions of a specific pollutant.
The idea that prudence should be exercised when ruling on the risk to human health from a pollutant, even if that risk is not well understood, is called the _____.
Consumerism is a term that describes a society in which people acquire only the material goods that they need for subsistence.
According to Gary Cross, consumerism expresses a less powerful worldview than political ideologies.
Economist Thorstein Veblen argued that in the new industrial society people displayed their status through "invidious comparison."
The formula for consumerism is activated by economic growth and social change in one nation after another.
The Consumer Protection Agency bill was passed by Congress largely because of the support of President Jimmy Carter.
The NHTSA has the power to require auto companies to recall vehicles with defective auto parts.
The doctrine in tort law that applies to redress to consumers for injuries that have been caused by defective products is called product liability law.
An injury to a consumer that has been caused by the defective product of a manufacturer is a type of tort.
A contract with the consumer in which the manufacturer guarantees the nature of its products is called a warranty.
An unknown number of new products and innovations never come to market at all because their liability potential scares manufacturers
The movement that promotes the rights and powers of consumers in relation to the sellers of products and services is called:
All of the following statements about Enlightenment are true EXCEPT:
It was a powerful ideology in which the pursuit of material goods beyond subsistence shapes social conduct.
Which historian defined consumerism as "the belief that goods give meaning to individuals and their roles in society?"
An emphasis on material objects or money that displaces spiritual, aesthetic or philosophical values is known as:
Thorstein Veblen argued that in the new industrial society people earned their status by:
Thorstein Veblen said that individuals acquire property to create _____ between themselves and their successful neighbors.
Which of the following federal agency was set up to set highway safety standards?
Federal highway administration
Which of the following statements regarding the CPSC is false?
It regulates all consumer products like guns and boats.
The _____ promotes research and investigation into the causes and prevention of product related deaths, illnesses and injuries.
Consumer product safety commission.
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration does all of the following EXCEPT:
Be responsible for traveler's safety.
All of the following statements about NHTSA are true EXCEPT:
It develops uniform safety standards for all products.
Which federal agency is responsible for establishing fuel economy standards for cars and trucks?
National highway transportation safety administration
Which federal agency has the largest extensive controls over a single product?
National highway traffic safety administration
Which of the following statements about the Food and Drug Administration is false?
It helps consumers evaluate the safety of products
The Food and Drug Administration regulates the quality, composition and safety of all of the following EXCEPT:
Meat and poultry
The FDA is authorized to regulate drugs in all of the following ways EXCEPT
Recall hazardous products with the permission of CPSC
A _____ has been appointed by the FDA charged with producing a plan of defense against domestic and imported hazards to consumers.
The federal trade commission is:
Responsible for curtailing the deceptive advertising of consumer products.
Which federal agency is responsible for regulating financial consumer products in the U. S?
Securities and Exchange Commission.
The doctrine in the law of torts that applies to redress for injuries caused by defective consumer products is called:
Which of the following statements about product liability is false?
Breach of warranty can not result in a product liability case.
The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission:
Protects consumers from housing and loan discrimination.
Which of the following statements regarding privity is true?
. It is a relationship giving parties a common interest under the law, as in the relationship between parties to a contract.
A private wrong committed by one person against another person or that other person's property is called a(n):
An unintentional failure to act as a reasonable and prudent person would act who was exercising ordinary care in that situation is called:
A statement that the product will perform in a specified way, a description of the product or a picture that shows a model product would be a part of:
An implied warranty is:
An unwritten warranty that a product is adequate to meet a buyer's reasonable expectations.
A contract between a buyer and a seller in which the seller guarantees the nature of the product being sold is called a(n):
"Liability without fault" that is set for people who are engaged in a dangerous activity that makes them liable for damages to other people is called:
All of the following statements about strict liability are true EXCEPT:
It imposed on buyers the responsibility to inspect carefully items they purchased.
The movement that promotes the rights and powers of consumers in relation to the sellers of products and services is called _____
The federal agency that is responsible for helping consumers to evaluate the comparative safety of products is the ____
The federal agency that is responsible for setting fuel economy standards for cars and trucks is called the ____
The federal agency that is responsible for regulating the composition of food products is called the _____.
The FDA has appointed a _____ charged with producing a plan of defense against domestic and imported hazards to consumers.
The doctrine that applies to redress for injuries caused by defective consumer products is called _____.
An unintentional failure to act as a reasonable person would act when that person was exercising ordinary care is called _____.
Graying of the workforce in developed nations is caused by increase in life expectancy combined with decline in fertility.
. In the past thirty years in the U.S., women have increased their participation in the labor force faster than men.
Birth rates have risen in the developed world and are now above the replacement rate in many nations.
Demographic change is caused by processes of job creation and job destruction that continuously alter the mix of productive work in every economy.
The American job landscape is shaped by the goods-producing sector, the service sector and the agricultural sector.
The economic sector that includes manufacturing, mining and construction is the service sector.
. In the U.S., union representation as a percentage of the private labor force is much higher than Western Europe.
In a global labor market workers in developed countries are exposed to competition from pools of low-cost workers.
When a company transfers work from its own workers to workers at another company, this is called outsourcing.
When a company transfers work from its own workers to workers who work in a foreign country, this is called offshoring.
An employment contract is the agreement by which an employee exchanges his or her labor in return for specific pay and working conditions.
One of the strengths of the "liberty of contract doctrine" is that it assumes equal bargaining power for all parties.
In the U.S., few states have enacted laws that go beyond the federal requirements of employment law.
In the absence of federal legislation, states have enacted additional worker protections of the rights of employees based on the doctrine of common law.
In the U.S., employer-employee relationships are governed under a body of common law based on earlier judicial decisions.
Employment-at-will was traditionally defined as an employment contract that could be ended by either party without notice and for any or no reason.
The core labor standards call on developed nations to eliminate all forced or compulsory labor, eliminate employment discrimination and guarantee the right of collective bargaining
The number of children a woman must have on average to ensure that one daughter survives to reproductive age is known as:
Replacement fertility rate
What type of change is caused by the processes of job creation or job destruction that alter the mix of work in an economy?
What sector of the U.S. economy is represented by farming, fishing and forestry occupations?
Which sector of the U.S. economy includes jobs in retailing, transportation and health care?
When a company transfers work from its own employees to workers in another company, this is called:
When a company transfers work from its own employees to workers in a foreign country, this is called:
The transfer of work from a domestic to a foreign location or to a foreign supplier is known as:
An agreement between an employee in which the employee agrees to exchange his or her labor for specific pay and working conditions is called a(n):
The freedom of employees to negotiate the terms of their wages, hours, duties and conditions in the workplace without government interference is called:
Liberty of contract
A great flaw in the _____ was that it assumed equal bargaining power for all parties, whereas employers unquestionably predominated.
Liberty of contract doctrin
Under which contract could employees be fired at will and had to accept virtually any working conditions?
Liberty of contract doctrine.
Which of the following is an agreement between an employer and a worker where the worker agrees not to join a union?
Yellow dog contract.
The Worker Adjustment and Retraining Act:
Requires companies with more than 100 workers to give 60 days' notice prior to plant closings or large layoffs.
Which of the following laws guarantees that preexisting medical problems will continue to be covered by health insurance when workers switch jobs?
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act.
The Comprehensive Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act:
Allows separated workers to continue in group health plans for up to 18 months at their own expense.
The Immigrant Reform and Control Act:
Protects work rights of legal aliens and prohibits hiring illegal aliens.
Which of the following prohibits discrimination against disabled employees and requires employers to make reasonable accommodations for them?
The ADA Act
When an employment contract can be ended by either the employer or the employee without notice and for any reason, it is called what type of contract?
Under the _____ doctrine, an employee must act "solely and entirely" for the employer's benefit in all work-related matters or be liable for termination and damages while employed under him or her.
Which of the following defies the amoral core of employment-at-will?
The implied covenant of good faith.
Which of the following is recognized by the Japanese worker compensation system as a syndrome marked by emotional and physical stress accumulated during six months or more of overwork?
Which of the following is a form of industry-labor-government cooperation in which government strongly regulates the labor market to secure expansive rights and high benefits for workers?
The social welfare model.
A set of four standards to protect basic worker rights on which there is broad international agreement is the:
Core labor standards.
Labor flexibility is the
Ability to make quick and smooth shifts of workers into and out of jobs as business conditions change.
Change that is produced by either creating or destroying jobs that alters the mix of work in an economy is called _____ change.
Farming, fishing and forestry occupations are part of the _____ sector of the U.S. economy
Manufacturing, mining and construction jobs are part of the _____ sector of the U.S. economy.
When a company transfers work from its own employees to workers at another company, this is called _____.
When a company transfers work from its own employees to workers who work in a foreign country, this is called _____.
An agreement in which an employee exchanges her labor for specific pay and working conditions is called a(n) __________ contract.
The freedom of workers and employers to negotiate the terms of an employment contract without government interference is called __________.
liberty of contract
When either an employer or an employee can terminate their employment contract at any time and for any reason, this is called _____.
The _____ is a form of industry-labor-government cooperation in which government strongly regulates the labor market to secure expansive rights and high benefits for workers.
social welfare model
In the U.S. Declaration of Independence, "unalienable Rights" are considered natural rights that cannot be taken away by government.
Giving out resources based on group membership instead of individual merit is called social discrimination
The idea that racially segregated facilities are not inherently unequal is called "separate but equal."
Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act originally required that minority workers be hired simply because they belonged to protected groups.
Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act originally required employers to correct racially imbalanced workforces.
Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act explained how companies were to correct disparate impact
In Griggs v. Duke Power, employment tests that screened out blacks were illegal only when racial discrimination was intended by the company.
For a company to use the "business necessity defense" in its hiring practices, it must prove that an employment test is job-related and essential.
In Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled against Allan Bakke's claim of discrimination in admission to Medical School.
The U.S. Supreme Court in United Steelworkers of America v. Weber permitted race-conscious preferential treatment for members of protected groups.
The U.S. Supreme Court in United Steelworkers of America v. Weber confirmed that affirmative action plans were illegal if they adversely affected whites.
In Adarand v. Pena, the U.S. Supreme Court set up a "strict scrutiny test" that made affirmative action programs easier to justify.
Statistics alone can resolve the utilitarian claim about whether or not affirmative action programs are a benefit or a cost to society.
In blue-collar settings, sexism can be blatant while in managerial settings, it is usually subtle
. In Harris v. Forklift Systems, the U.S. Supreme Court established a mathematical formula for defining a hostile work environment.
The belief that each race has distinctive cultural characteristics and that one's own race is superior to other races is called:
When resources are distributed based on group membership instead of individual merit, this is called:
. Social discrimination.
Laws adopted by some Southern states that created segregated schools, restrooms and water fountains were called:
Jim Crow laws.
The idea that racially segregated schools are not inherently unequal is called the doctrine of:
Separate but equal.
If an employer gives less favorable treatment to employees because of their race or religion, this is called:
When an employment policy is "apparently neutral" in its impact on employees, but really prevents individuals in protected categories from promotion within the company, this is called:
Employment policies that try to give preferential treatment to groups protected by Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act are called:
Which of the following statements about Executive Order 11246 is false
It is a legal defense a company can use to fight a disparate impact charge.
All of the following statements about the Weber decision are true EXCEPT:
It permitted sex-conscious preferential treatment for members of protected groups.
Which of the following statements about utilitarian considerations of affirmative action is true?
Advocates argue that preferential treatment policies benefit everyone by making fuller use of talent.
The requirement that fair criteria be used to assign benefits and burdens comes under
Norms of distributive justice
The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990:
Extends to impaired workers the protections granted to women and ethnic minorities in Title VII.
Comparing the high-income nations to one another, which of the following has the highest female labor force participation?
A 50 - year-old senior manager who tells a woman project manager that she is like his daughter and should always follow his advice can be charged with:
Annoying behavior in the workplace that asserts power over a worker based on that worker's sexual identity is called
Which of the following statements regarding sexual harassment is not true?
It is illegal under Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act
When sexually offensive conduct creates a work situation in which it becomes difficult for a worker to do his or her job, this is called:
A hostile environment.
Coarse language and lewd pinups used by a manager of a company would come under:
In Harris v. Forklift Systems, the Supreme Court held that the guideline regarding sexual harassment would depend on all of the following EXCEPT:
Whether it reasonably interferes with work
Which of the following statements about women's occupation is true?
They flow most freely into growing occupations where demand for labor reduces barriers to entry, including sex discrimination
An invisible barrier of sex discrimination thwarting the advance of women to top corporate positions is known as:
All of the following are reasons for persistence of gender wage gap EXCEPT:
Involvement of women in manufacturing sector.
Programs to increase worker heterogeneity and make corporate cultures more friendly to employees of any race, ethnicity, gender, age, religion, sexual orientation or disability is known as:
Which of the following is a difference between diversity management and affirmative action?
Affirmative action is compliance-oriented hiring of individuals from a narrow range of racial and ethnic categories.
A networking group formed by employees who personify an attribute associated with bias and social isolation is known as a(n):
Which of the following statements about affinity groups is false?
They are designed to overcome stereotypes
Which of the following statements about mentors is false?
They teach employees about differences based on gender, ethnicity and cultural background
Which of the following statements about data collection is true?
It is needed to define issues and measure progress
In the U.S. Declaration of Independence, life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness are referred to as _____ rights.
The belief that each race has distinctive cultural characteristics and that one's own race is superior to other races is called _____.
The idea that racially segregated schools are not inherently unequal is called the _____ doctrine.
separate but equal
. If an employer gives less favorable treatment to employees because of their color or gender, this is called _____ treatment.
When an employment policy is "apparently neutral" in its treatment of employees, but, in reality, is not job-related at all, this is called _____.
When the benefit to society of affirmative actions is judged by _____ ethics, the costs to society are not considered.
The Americans with Disabilities Act requires companies to make _____ for disabled workers
Persecuting behavior in the workplace that asserts power over a person based on their sexual identity is called _____.
When sexually offensive conduct interferes with a worker's ability to perform his or her job, it is called a(n) _____.
The so-called "invisible barrier" that prevents women from being promoted to top management positions is called the _____.
Corporate charters require the directors of the company to protect the financial interests of the company's stockholders
According to corporate charters, the legal line of authority for a company runs from the state, to directors, to managers and to shareholders of the company in this sequence.
The Commerce Clause of the U.S. constitution gives Congress the power to regulate corporations.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act prohibits outside auditors of a business from accepting certain types of consulting fees when they are auditing the books of a company
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires that accounting firm auditors of a company be rotated every three years
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act prohibits the audit committee of a company's board of directors from protecting whistleblowers in the company
The Sherman Antitrust Act requires both the CEO and the CFO to sign and to certify the accuracy of the annual financial statements of their company
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires company executives to forfeit the profits from the sale of their company's stock when company earnings are restated because of securities fraud
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act prohibits company executives from receiving loans from their company that are unavailable to outsiders of the company
Rule 14a - 8 stipulates that a company must include a shareholder's proposal in its proxy statement if it meets specified requirements
The annual base salary for a CEO is always set near the median salary for leaders at comparable firms
. Most corporations have compensation committees of the board that set the pay of the company's top executives
Spring loading is setting the exercise price of stock options at the price on a date before the date they were granted
The legal checks and balances that define the rights and power of shareholders, boards of directors and managers of companies are called:
In reality, the sequence of the flow of authority of a corporation from the powers granted in the charter of the corporation is from:
The stockholders to the directors to the CEO
A government document that creates a corporation and defines its authority is called a(n):
This is the legal duty of a representative to manage property in the interest of the owner
Which of the following enacted new regulations on auditing, financial reporting and legal compliance?
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act.
These are directors who do not have business dealings with a corporation that would impair their impartiality.
Compensation of these directors is determined by compensation committees on boards
Which of the following statements about compensation of outside board members is trueWhich of the following statements about compensation of outside board members is true?
They are usually paid an annual retainer supplemented with additional payments for serving on board committees.
This is an independent director who chairs regular board meetings of other independent directors
Which of the following are organizational investors that buy shares in publicly-traded corporations?
The earliest initiatives of this dealt with actions taken by companies to ward off corporate raiders
Name the document sent to shareholders before the annual meeting that sets forth matters requiring their vote.
All of the following statements are true of the requirements of proxy statements EXCEPT
The proposal cannot exceed 1,000 words.
Which of the following statements about the requirements of proxy statements is true?
A shareholder may submit only one proposal for a particular shareholder meeting
The CalPERS fund has identified each year a list of about 10 companies in its portfolio whose shares are underperforming market indexes. This is called
The focus list
Which of the following statements about the components of executive compensation is true?
The annual base salary is usually set near the median salary for leaders at comparable firms.
The right to buy a company's stock at a fixed price and under the conditions set by the company's board of directors is called a(n):
The right to purchase a specified number of shares of a company's stock for a specified price at a future date is called a(n):
. Shares of company stock awarded after a fixed period of years if individual and company performance goals are met are called
This is a grant of stock with restrictions on transaction that are removed when a specified condition is met.
These cannot be sold until certain conditions are met, most often the lapse of a time period or meeting a performance goal
Setting the exercise price of stock options at the price on a date before the date they were granted is:
Which of the following is illegal when concealed from shareholders and is criticized for giving executives unearned rewards
The legal checks and balances that define the rights and powers of shareholders, boards and managers are called _____.
In reality, the flow of authority in corporate governance is from powers granted in the charter to _____, then to _____ and then to _____.
stockholders, directors, the CEO
The legal authority for corporate managers and directors to function is granted in the _____
The _____ Clause of the U.S. Constitution gives Congress the power to regulate U.S. corporations
The right to purchase a specified number of shares in a company's stock for a set price at a future date is called a(n) _____
The U.S. Constitution is a "federal system" in which governmental powers are divided between a national government and fifty state governments
In U.S. government, the division of powers between the national government and the state governments is addressed in the U.S. Constitution.
The supremacy clause of the U.S. Constitution states that state laws take precedence over federal laws dealing with the same topic
The First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution gives businesses the right to pursue their agenda with the federal government
The U.S. Constitution sets up a separation of powers between the three branches of the federal government
The U.S. Constitution allows for judicial review of laws to determine if officials of the government exceed their authority
Immediately after the U.S. Civil War, "big business" dominated both the federal government and the state governments to an extent that has not been seen since that time.
A lobbyist representing a trade association attempts to influence legislators to pass laws favorable to that industry.
When a company tries to influence public opinion to support a position held by the company, this is called grassroots lobbying.
The Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) of 1971 was passed to stiffen disclosure requirements on campaign contributions and expenditures
A political committee formed by a company to collect campaign contributions from its employees is called a PAC
A company does not need to set up a separate fund in order to accept political funds from employees when instituting a PAC.
. PACs can only accept donations from the employees of the company they represent up to $200,000.
. Funds that are contributed to political parties that are unregulated under U.S. federal election laws are called hard money.
Funds that are contributed to political parties under strict rules in U.S. federal election law are called soft money.
When a PAC purchases time for a TV commercial that encourages defeat of an opposition candidate, this is called a dependent expenditure.
The 1st Amendment of the U.S. Constitution does not allow "corporate speech" to be silenced by the federal government.
A political machine built to promote Republican domination by aligning the lobbying industry with Republican causes is known as:
K street project
A government in which powers are divided between a central government and subdivision governments is called a(n):
Which part of the U.S. Constitution states that federal government laws take precedence over state laws on the same topic?
The supremacy clause.
The U.S. Supreme Court struck down a California law for exhaust standards for trucks stipulating that the act passed by the Congress should be followed. This ruling was based on which part of the U.S. Constitution?
The supremacy clause
Which part of the U.S. Constitution allows businesses to attempt to influence federal laws?
The first amendment
The system under which each branch of the government has considerable independence and the power to check and balance each other is known as:
Separation of powers
Which of the following statements about the Seventeenth Amendment is true?
It instituted the direct election of senators by voters in each state.
Which amendment to the U.S. Constitution gave women the right to vote in elections?
All of the following are changes born out of the Great Depression EXCEPT:
The government would keep its hands off corporations and spend more on infrastructure.
All of the following statements about subcommittees are true EXCEPT
They were controlled by a few party leaders and held hearings on few reserved subjects.
A group that represents the political interests of many companies from different industries is called a(n):
An office in Washington, DC, set up by a corporation and staffed with experts in advocating the firm's point of view to lawmakers and regulators is known as:
A combination of business interests - including corporations, trade associations and peak associations - united to pursue a political goal is known as:
When a business hires an expert to attempt to influence government regulations to favor its operations, this is called:
All of the following statements regarding lobbyists are true EXCEPT they:
Have power over major issues to which public is attentive.
Which of the following statements about background lobbying is true?
Indirect lobbying activity designed to build friendly relations with officials and staff.
When a company attempts to arouse public opinion in favor of a proposed legislation that would be favorable to this business, this is called:
U.S. elections for the President, Vice-President and members of Congress are called
A political committee formed by a company to funnel contributions from its employees to political campaigns is called a(n):
When a company forms a committee to funnel campaign contributions from its employees to candidates up for election, this committee is called a(n):
Political action committee
Money contributed to political candidates that is not regulated by federal election law is called:
TV ads that present a political comment on an important topic in an upcoming election are called:
Issue advocacy ads
TV ads that suggest that a certain political candidate by defeated in an upcoming election are called
Express advocacy ads.
Which of the following statements about BCRA is true?
Contribution limits for individuals are indexed for inflation.
When an individual collects campaign contribution checks from other individuals and then mails them to a political party headquarters, this process is called:
Which of the following statements about 501 (c) tax exempt groups is true?
They can engage in issue advertising.
Which of the following statements about 527 groups is true?
If they engage only in issue advocacy they can take in unlimited amounts of soft money from any source to run issue ads.
The government established by the U.S. Constitution that forms both a national government and state governments is called a(n) __________ system of government.
The legislative, executive and judicial functions of the U.S. government are in three branches of government in order to promote a __________ of powers.
When judges are allowed to strike down acts of government officials that exceed their authority, this process is called __________.
The __________ Amendment of the U.S. constitution required the direct election of U.S. senators by voters in each state.
_____ was a powerful adversary in the late nineteenth century which advocated prohibition of alcohol.
A group of people or organizations that form to influence a specific issue until that issue becomes less important to them is called a(n) __________.
When a business hires a Washington law firm to attempt to influence legislation in its favor, this is called __________.
A TV ad that presents a view of the Democratic party on a topic before a federal election is called __________ advocacy
Much of industrial pollution adds to naturally occurring substances that pollute the environment
Disease that is caused by industrial pollution is far more significant than disease caused by older, non-industrial forms of pollution
Nonpolluting economic growth that raises the standard of living without depleting the planet's resources is called sustainable development
On earth, human beings are the only creatures that have the power of reason according to the theory of dualism
Early capitalism in the U.S. was very concerned with damage to the environment that was caused by economic activity
The doctrine of utilitarianism was used to justify economic activity that harmed the environment.
The doctrine of utilitarianism rationalized the environmental side effects of commercial activities
When the U.S. Congress passes a law affecting the environment, SEC employees write the detailed, specific rules that are needed to carry out the directives of the law.
RPM is the ratio of the molecules of a certain chemical to the total number of molecules in a gas, liquid or solid
. Sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen contribute to formation of the small airborne particles that cause regional haze
Emissions output is the amount of greenhouse gases emitted per unit of economic output, measured as tons of emissions per million dollars of GDP
In terms of major environmental health risks, which of the following has the highest percentage of DALYs in less developed countries?
Water supply and sanitation
The thin space that is at the top of the earth's surface that allows the earth to support life is called the
All of the following statements about ecosystems are true EXCEPT:
They are the slender margin atop the earth's surface that provide services that support human well-being.
The stabilization of seabeds and absorption of carbon by coral reefs are examples of:
Nonpolluting economic growth that improves the standard of living of people without depleting the resources of the earth is called:
As the per capita gross domestic product continues to rise, pollution reaches a peak and then decreases. This phenomenon is called the:
Environmental Kuznets curve
The idea that nature operates with fixed laws like a machine and that human beings can understand these laws is called:
The theory of dualism.
The belief that history is a narrative of improvement in which humanity moves from lower to higher levels of perfection is known as the idea of:
The GDP _____ when goods and services are produced and _____ when pollution damage occurs
Rises; does not fall
The idea of "the greatest good for the greatest number of people" is the basic doctrine of
_____ changes the role of Homo sapiens from conqueror of the land-community to plain member and citizen of it
All of the following statements about deep ecology are true EXCEPT
Nature operated like a machine, according to fixed laws that humans could study and understand.
All of the following statements about EPA are true EXCEPT:
It is a legislative branch regulatory subcommittee.
The EPA has set standards intended to curb the emissions of six substances that are the primary threat to air quality because they are so prominent. These substances are called:
All of the following statements about particulates are true EXCEPT:
When created in the atmosphere they are called VOCs.
Chemical emissions that pose a health risk of serious illness such as cancer with even small inhalation exposures are known as:
Hazardous air pollutants.
Maximum achievable control technology is a performance standard used by the EPA to control:
Emissions of hazardous air pollutants.
Which of the following statements about CFCs is false?
They emit beta and gamma radiations that penetrate human tissue and cause death.
Which of the following statements about greenhouse gases is false?
The predominant greenhouse gas is methane.
According to the EPA regulations, industrial sites that discharge pollutants from a single location are called:
Which government regulation gave the EPA the authority to manage hazardous waste "from cradle to grave?"
The program to clean up abandoned toxic waste sites set up by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 is known as:
The thin layer that sits above the earth's surface that allows the earth to support life is called the _____.
The idea that nonpolluting economic growth that raises the standard of living of people without depleting the earth's resources is called _____.
The idea that as per capita GDP rises, pollution reaches a peak and then starts to decline is known as the _____ curve.
Descartes' belief that nature operates like a machine with fixed laws that humans can understand is called the theory of _____.
. "The greatest good for the greatest number of people" is a fundamental postulate in the doctrine of _____.
The emissions of six natural substances that are the primary threat to air quality in the U.S. are called _____.