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CH 23 margin review questions
Terms in this set (9)
What factors contributed to economic globalization in the second half of the 20th century?
The aftermath of WWII led capitalist countries to avoid any return to the Depression era conditions. The Bretton Woods Conference established a system which laid the foundation for postwar globalization - financial rules for commercial and capitalist free trade and investment. These institutions were the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. Technology! - lowered transportation costs. Internet = global interaction. World Economy & world market of goods. Global capitalism!
2. In what ways has economic globalization more closely linked the world's peoples?
"Reglobalization" of world economy= Acceleration of circulation of goods, capital, and people meant globalization thus enabling workers to travel to other countries for employment. Transnational corporations produced & delivered goods in & to many different countries which led to diversity & exchange. World trade! Goods went global. Money was also mobile; such as foreign direct investment (one country opens a factory in another), the short-term movement of capitol (investors annually spent trillions of $ buying foreign currencies/stocks abd sold them quickly after), personal funds of individuals (international credit cards). Global stock market= transnational corporations.
3. What new or sharper divisions has economic globalization generated?
Modern global system produced economy's unstable and unsteady progress, leading to inequality. Divisions between Developed rich Nations of the North & Developing Nations of the South in income worsened the North/South Gap. The disparity in incomes, medical care, clean water, education, employment, the internet, etc. between the rich and poor shaped life chances. Active resistance by rich countries such as the 1970's when a large group of developing countries joined together to demand a "new international economic order" that was more favorable to the poor countries; not much success attended this effort. Common action between Developing Nations was difficult to achieve because of their different economic agendas. Spurred new movements of anti-globalization in the 1990s
What distinguished feminism in the industrialized countries from that in the Global South?
Second wave feminism had a new emphasis on employment and education. The radical American feminism known as "women's liberation" looked at patriarchy as domination. African American women viewed family as a secure base from which to resist racism versus white middle class feminists who found their family oppressive; colored women focused on racism and poverty. Global South welcomed women for support. Many did not support concerns that started American or European feminism. Global South feminist movement became self-help groups. Developing nations, such as Morocco, saw women as equals
In what respect did the various religious fundamentalisms of the 20th century express hostility to global modernity?
The scientific and secular focus of global modernity directly challenged the core beliefs of supernatural religion. Religious traditions of class, family & gender that had long been sanctified by religious tradition were upset by capitalism, industrialization, and globalization. Global economy challenged nation-states associated with religions. Usually came from foreigners (Westerners) in the forms of military defeat, colonial rule, economic dependency, and cultural intrusion. Fundamentalism was the religious response as rejection to modernity; it fought with religious right.
From what sources did Islamic renewal movements drive?
Muslims wanted to create a new religious/political order centered on a particular understanding of Islam. Problems in the new politically independent states flew in the face of great expectations after European domination. Western cultural penetration appeared frequently in the Muslim world. Islamic alternative to Western models of modernity. Focused on Quran & Sharia (Islamic law) as a guide for life. Islamic renewal boosted economy & culture.
In what different ways did Islamic renewal express itself?
Many people became more religiously modest, became more religiously observant, praying regularly, and fasting. Islamic dress & veil were adopted by urban, young, and well-educated women voluntarily. Sufi practices increased. Governments sought to anchor themselves in Islamic practices from the Quran. Social service organizations arose. Many people embraced modern science and technology with a distinctly Islamic culture. Violent overthrow of comprised regimes in the Muslim world; ex: assassination of President Sadat in 1981. Attack on west maternity.
How can we explain the dramatic increase in the human impact on the environment in the 20th century?
Explosion of human population that quadrupled in a single century. Human activity altered the natural order on a global or even geological proportion. Growing numbers of the poor & growing consumption of the rich led to doubling of cropland & contraction of the world's forests & grasslands. Plant & animal species disappeared or became almost extinct because of diminished/ing habitats. Modern industry (global) was dependent on fossil fuels which increased pollution. Global Warming!! Trapping greenhouse gases and loss of tree means warming of the atmosphere.
What differences emerged between environmentalism in the global north and that in the global south?
1962: Began with Rachel Carson's "Silent Spring". Action came from the grass roots and citizen protest. Europe: "Limits to Growth", a report of resource exhaustion, was written. Western activists focused much attention to wilderness issues, opposing logging, road building, and other development efforts in remaining unspoiled areas.
Environmentalism in developing countries was more locally based with fewer large national organizations than in the West. It involved poor people not middle class; it was less engaged in political lobbying; it was more concerned with issues of food, security, health, & survival rather than the protection of nature; & closely related to movements for social justice. So, environmental protest led to movements seeking to challenge power structures and social classes.
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