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Ch. 20


the study of the form of an organism's structures


the study of the functions of an organism's structures

Structure in the living world is organized in _______ levels.


What major concept in biology is illustrated by the gecko's feet?

The combination of structure and function of parts of organisms' bodies

What are the 5 levels of structural hierarchy in an organism?

1) cell
2) tissue
3) organ
4) organ system
5) organism


an integrated group of similar cells that perform a common function


made up of two or more types of tissues that together perform a specific task (ex: the heart is made up of nervous, epithelial, and connective tissue)

organ system

consists of multiple organs that together perform a vital body function (ex: circulatory system, respiratory system, digestive system)

Explain how the ability to pump blood is an emergent property of a heart, which is at the organ level of the biological hierarchy

The specific structural organization and integration of the individual muscle, connective, epithelial, and nervous tissues of a heart enable the function of pumping blood

An animal's size and shape are fundamental aspects of form that affect the way an animal interacts with its environment (develops through natural selection)


Natural selection fits ______ to _______.

form; function

Explain how a seal, a penguin, and a shark illustrate convergent evolution

All three have a streamlined, tapered shape, the result of natural selection adapting each to fast swimming in its dense, aquatic environment

What are the 4 main types of tissue

1) epithelial
2) connective
3) muscle
4) nervous

How is tissue different from a cell and an organ?

Tissues are collections of similar cells that perform a common function. Several different tissue types usually produce the structure of an organ.

Epithelial tissues

sheets of closely packed cells that cover your body surface and line your internal organs and cavities; form protective barriers; one side is attached to a basal lamina, a dense mat of extracellular matrix consisting of fibrous proteins and sticky polysaccharides

convergent evolution

when different species develop similar features usually for the same function (ex: streamlined bodies for aquatic animals who need speed)

Epithelial tissues are named according to 2 things:

1) number of cell layers they have
2) the shape of the cells on their apical surface

What are the 5 types of epithelial cells

1) simple squamous (lung sacs)
2) simple cuboidal epithelium (kidney)
3) simple columnar (intestines)
4) pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium (respiratory tract)
5) stratified squamous epithelium (esophagus)

simple squamous epithelium

type: epithelial tissue
structure: thin and leaky
location: lung air sacs; capillaries
function: exchanging materials by diffusion

simple cuboidal epithelium

type: epithelial tissue
structure: tube
location: kidneys
function: secretion and absorption of materials

simple columnar epithelium

type: epithelial tissue
structure: block of "tentacles"
location: intestines
function: secretion and absorption of materials

pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

type: epithelial tissue
structure: block of irregular tentacles with spots
location: respiratory tract
function: keeps lungs and respiratory system clean (forms mucus membrane that traps particles)

stratified squamous epithelium

type: epithelial tissue
structure: block of several cells
location: skin and esophagus
function: preventing abrasion (the many cells can regenerate rapidly)

connective tissue

consists of a sparse population of cells scattered throughout an extracellular material called a matrix

What are the 6 major types of connective tissue

1) loose
2) fibrous
3) adipose
4) cartilage
5) bone
6) blood

loose connective tissue

type: connective tissue
structure: looks like AIDS; consists of collagen
location: under the skin
function: bind epithelia to underlying tissues and hold organs in place

fibrous connective tissue

type: connective tissue
structure: smooth wavy (collagen fibers)
location: muscles, bones, joints
function: 1) forms tendons, which attach muscles to bone, and 2) forms ligaments, which attach bones at joints

adipose connective tissue

type: connective tissue
structure: looks like tapioca pudding
location: all over body
function: stores fat in closely packed cells for later use; insulates the body


type: connective tissue
structure: tightly-packed, cell-looking; collagen forms strong, flexible skeletal material
location: surrounds ends of bones
function: provides a shock-absorbing surface


type: connective tissue
structure: matrix of collagen in hard mineral substance of Ca, Mg, and P
location: bones
function: combination of fibers and minerals makes bone strong but not brittle


type: connective tissue
structure: extracellular matrix is liquid plasma; blood cells float in it (consists of water, salts, and dissolved proteins)
location: blood
function: 1) red blood cells carry oxygen; 2) white blood cells fight disease; 3) platelets clot blood

Why does blood qualify as a type of connective tissue?

Because it consists of a relatively sparse population of cells surrounded by a noncellular matrix, which in this case is a fluid called plasma

muscle tissue

- the most abundant tissue
- consists of long cells called muscle fibers
- those are made of contractile proteins

What are the 3 main types of muscle tissue?

1) skeletal muscle
2) cardiac muscle
3) smooth muscle

skeletal muscle

type: muscle tissue
structure: rigidly parallel (striped/striated)
location: attached to bones by tendons
function: voluntary movements

cardiac muscle

type: muscle tissue
structure: braided fibers; forms contractile tissue of heart
location: heart
function: heartbeat (they contract autonomically)

smooth muscle

type: muscle tissue
structure: big nuclei; lack striations
location: walls of digestive track, arteries
function: involuntary body activities (ex: movement of food through intestines)

The muscles responsible for a gecko climbing a wall are ______ muscles

skeletal muscles

nervous tissue

sense stimuli and rapidly transmits information; found in brain and spinal cord (nervous system) and nerves


the structural and functional unit of the nervous system (main type of tissue); conducts electrical nerve impulses

How does the long length of some axons (such as those that extend from your lower spine to your toes) relate to the function of a neuron?

It allows for the transmission of a nerve signal over a long distance directly to specific muscle cells

In the heart, epithelial tissue help with what?

lines the chambers; prevents leakage and provides a smooth surface over which blood can flow

In the heart, connective tissue helps with what?

makes it elastic and strengthens its walls

In the heart, muscle and nerve tissue helps with?

neurons regulate the contractions of cardiac muscle

Explain why a disease that damages connective tissue can impair most of the body's organs

Connective tissue is a component of most organs.

Why is it beneficial to grow replacement tissues or organs from a patient's own cells?

The patient's body would not reject the tissue as foreign.

How many organ systems can you name?

1) circulatory system
2) respiratory system
3) integumentary system
4) skeletal system
5) muscular system
6) urinary system
7) digestive system
8) endocrine system
9) lymphatic system
10) immune system
11) nervous system
12) reproductive system

circulatory system

- delivers oxygen and nutrients to body cells
- transports CO2 to lungs
- transports metabolic waste to kidneys
heart, blood vessels

respiratory system

- exchanges gases with the environment
- supplies blood with oxygen
- disposes of CO2
nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchus, lungs

integumentary system

protects body against:
- injury
- infection
- heat or cold
- dehydration
hair, skin, nails

skeletal system

- supports body
- protects organs like brain and lungs
- provides framework for muscle movement
bones, cartilage

muscular system

- moves body
- maintains posture
- produces heat
all skeletal muscles

urinary system

- removes waste products from blood
- excretes urine
- regulates chemicals, pH, and water in blood
kidneys, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra

digestive system

- ingests and digests food
- absorbs nutrients
- eliminates undigested material
mouth, esophagus, liver, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, asshole

endocrine system

- secretes hormones
- regulates body activity
- maintain homeostasis
hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, thymus, parathyroid gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, testis, ovary

lymphatic system and immune system

- returns excess fluid to circulatory system
- functions as part of immune system
- defends body against infection and cancer
lymph nodes, thymus, spleen, appendix, bone marrow, lymphatic vessels

nervous system

- detects stimuli
- coordinates bodily activities
- integrates info
brain, sense organ, spinal cord, nerves

reproductive system

- produces gametes
- produces sex hormones
- supports developing embryo
dick, pussy, balls, etc.

Which two organ systems are most directly involved in regulating all other systems?

the nervous and endocrine systems

What are 4 types of imaging technology?

1) x-rays
2) CT scan
3) MRI
4) PET scan


can look for broken bones

True or false? Blood surrounds/bathes each and every cell in the body allowing exchange of materials in and out of the cells.

False. Some organs that contain waste like the kidneys wouldn't want to transfer of materials into the blood

CT scan

can detect small differences between normal and abnormal tissues


uses powerful magnets to align the hydrogen nuclei and put them out of alignment, causing them to send radio signals, forming an very clear image


can yield info about metabolic processes; a patient is injected with radioactive glucose and metabolically active cells take up more glucose; this helps identify metabolic hot spots that could signal cancerous tissue

Why are the imaging techniques described in this module regarded as relatively noninvasive in contrast to such diagnostic methods as exploratory surgery or biopsy?

Although they may involve injections, these techniques require no surgery

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