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Chapters 5 and 21

the fluid mosaic model describes the plasma membrane as consisting of

phospholipids and proteins

most of the functions of a cell membrane are preformed by


Relaying a message from a membrane receptor to a molecule that preforms a specific function within a cell is called

signal transaction

plasma membranes are selectively permeable, this means that

substances can pass through them

which of the following statements regarding membrane function is false

plasma membrane is control center of cell

small, non-polar, hydrophobic molecules such as fatty acids

easily pass through membranes lilpid bilayer

oxygen crosses through a plasma membrane by

passive transport

diffusion does not require the cell to expend ATP. Therefore, diffusion is considered a type of

passive transport

osmosis can be defined as

diffusion of water

When two aqueous solutions that differ in solute concentration are placed on either side of a semipermeable membrane and osmosis is allowed to take place, the water will

exhibit net movement to the side with lower water concentration

In the lab, you use a special balloon that is permeable to water, but not sucrose, to make an "artificial cell." The balloon is filled with a solution of 20% sucrose and 80% waterand is immersed in a beaker containing a solution of 40% sucrose and 60% water. Which of the following will occur?

water will leave ballon

A cell that never gains nor loses water when it is immersed in a solution is

isotonic to its environment

In a hypotonic solution, an animal cell will


If placed in tap water, an animal cell will undergo lysis, whereas a plant cell will not. What accounts for this difference?

the relative inelasticity and strength of plant cell wall

A plant cell in a hypotonic solution is

is turgid

Facilitated diffusion across a biological membrane requires ___________ and moves substance ____________ its concentration gradient

transport proteins, down

the molecules responsible for membrane transport are


which of the following statements is true among all types of passive diffusion

the concentration gradient is the driving force

which of the following processes can move a solute against its concentration gradient

active transport is driven by concentration gradient

Which of the following processes could result in the net movement of a substance into a cell, if the substance is more concentrated in the cell then in the surroundings?

active transport

Which of the following statements regarding active transport id false?

active transport

Certain cells that line the stomach synthesize a digestive enzyme and secret it into the stomach. This enzyme is protein. Which of the following processes could be responsible for its secretion?


The process of a white blood cell engulfing a bacterium is


According to __________, energy cannot be created or destroyed

the first law of thermodynamics

A steer must eat at least 100 pounds of grain to gain less then 10 pounds of muscle tissue. This illustrates

the second law of thermodynamics

What is the basic difference between exergonic and endergonic reactions?

Exergonic reactions release energy; endergonic reactions absorb it

The transfer of a phosphate group to a molecule or compound is called


anything that prevents ATP formation will most likely

result in cell death

when an enzyme catalyzes a reaction

it lowers the activation energy of the reaction

substrates bind to an enzyme's ________ site


the active site of an enzyme is

the region of an enzyme that attatches to a substrate

which of the following statements regarding enzymes is true

enzymes catalyze specific reactions

Heating inactivates enzymes by

changing the enzymes 3 demensions and shapes

humpbuck whales

strain krill with baleene

most animals are

bulk feeders

digestion is the

second step

during which of the following stages of food processing is undigested material removed from the digestive tract


through digestion, polysaccharides are broken into


through digestion nucleic acids are broken down into


an alimentary canal is best defined as

a single tube with specialized regions used to digest food

the main function of an earthworms gizzard is to

mechanically digest food

which of the following choices lits the organs of the bird digestive system in the correct order, from first to last contact with food material

mouth, esophagus, crop, stomach, gizzard, intestine, anus

Which of the following correctly lists


smooth muscle propels food through the alimentary canal by a process called


regulation of the passage of food from the stomach is accomplished by

pyloric sphincter

digestion begins in the

oral cavity

the digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth, what is the name given to the starch-digesting enzyme secretes by salivary glands?


the tongue does all of the following except

tastes, shapes, moves towards the pharynx

the epiglottis is a

muscular flap that keeps food from going into the trachea

the Heimlich maneuver is perform to forcibly

dislodge food from the pharynx or trachea

the mucous-producing cells that line the stomach

protect against HCL and pepsin

the stomach mixes food with secretions of the stomach wall to form


heartburn is usually caused by

gastric juice in the esophagus

the function of the pyloric sphincter is to

controls what goes from the stomach to the small intestine

most gastric ulcers are caused by

bacterial infections (helicobacterpylori) in the stomach

in the digestive system, most nutrient absorption occurs in the

small intestine

epithelial cells lining the intestine have surface projections that increase nutrient absorption, these projections are called


bile produced in the liver is stored in the ________ before entering the intestine

gull bladder

which enzyme breaks large polypeptides into smaller polypeptides


which of the following nutrients is digested only after it reaches the small intestine


nutrients absorbed by the intestines move directly to the liver, which

process and store

absorption of water is a major function of the

large intestine

Interestingly, most herbivorous animals do not have the ability to digest cellulose in plants. However, in the absence of this ability, they have evolved a mechanism that allows them to survive despite eating only plant matter, namelt


which of the following digestive system structures is greatly expanded in size in koalas, resulting in a very large surface area for prokaryotes to digest plant matter

large intestine/cecum

all animals must obtain _______ from outside sources

essential nutrients

the rate of energy consumption by the body is called

metabolic rate

a material that must be ingested in preassembles form because the animal cannot synthesize it is

essential amino acids

which of the following vitamins is fat soluble and consequently, can be stored in fat

a d e k

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