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African American History Final

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Ida B. Wells was best known for her involvement in which movement?
the movement to end lynching
When black women offered their services as nurses to the U.S. military, the government
enlisted them reluctantly and sent them to Europe only after fighting had ended.
An entire black regiment was rewarded with the Croix de Guerre for its performance at
Maison-en-Champagne.
The famous scientist and botanist George Washington Carver became the head of which school's agricultural department in 1896?
Tuskegee Institute
In an attempt to arouse more support for the war effort among black Americans, whom did Herbert Hoover appoint as a Food Administration field worker for the southern states?
Ernest Atwell
Before the United States entered the First World War, black men
served in both the National Guard and the regular army.
Who was the highest-ranking black officer in the U.S. Army at the beginning of the First World War?
Charles W. Young
Known as the Harlem Hellfighters, what was the most acclaimed black regiment of the First World War?
the 369supth/sup United States Infantry
Who coined the phrase Talented Tenth to refer to elite black students who deserved the finest in classical liberal arts education?
Henry Morehouse
White philanthropic support for black southern schools increased as a result of whose emergence as a national figure?
Booker T. Washington
Approximately how many black soldiers deserted to German lines in response to German propaganda which reminded them that they did not enjoy at home the democracy for which they were reportedly fighting?
0
Which African-American writer was accused of being a race traitor for arguing in his book The/ American/ Negro/ that blacks were inherently inferior to whites?
William Hannibal Thomas
The General Education Board and the Slater Fund were examples of foundations to aid southern black schools established b
wealthy industrialists.
During World War I, who served as a special assistant to the secretary of war, advising on matters related to African Americans?
Emmett J. Scott
In August 1917, a melee begun between white policemen and black soldiers resulted in the killing of seventeen whites and the execution of thirteen black soldiers in
Houston, Texas.
Who wrote the widely read autobiography, Up/ from/ Slavery
Booker T. Washington
Roughly how many blacks participated in the Great Migration during the First World War?
500,000
Who played a crucial role as a fundraiser in the formative years of the Tuskegee Institute before marrying Booker T. Washington in 1885?
Olivia Davidson
From its founding in 1909 until 1917, the NAACP
had only one black officer.
Roughly how many African American men served in the U.S. armed services during the First World War?
370,000
For forty years, as part of the Tuskegee Study, the U.S. Public Health Service withheld treatment for and studied the effects of what disease on 400 uninformed poor black men?
syphilis
After his election in 1928, which representative from Illinois became the first black northerner to serve in Congress?
Oscar DePriest
To a disproportionate degree, Afro-Caribbean immigrants to the United States were
educated and prosperous.
Lasting almost two weeks and leaving over three dozen people dead, the worst race riot of the post-World War I period took place in
Chicago.
What effect did the onset of the Great Depression have on members of the black middle class?
They suffered economically along with the devastated black lower class on whose patronage they depended for their livelihood.
The 1915 U.S. Supreme Court case of Guinn v. United States declared that
grandfather clauses violated the Fifteenth Amendment.
In 1918, approximately how many copies of its magazine did the NAACP sell each month?
100,000
President Wilson lavished praise on The Birth of a Nation, a 1915 movie which glorified
the Ku Klux Klan.
The migration of almost a million blacks from the South in the 1920s revealed that
the agricultural sector of the American economy was in dire straits well before the Depression began, forcing southern blacks to find work elsewhere.
During his presidency Woodrow Wilson issued an executive order which
segregated federal facilities and removed many blacks from federal office.
What was the name of the magazine published by the NAACP?
The Crisis
What island was the origin of the largest contingent of Afro-Caribbeans to migrate to the United States?
Jamaica
Which film actor's dance duets with Shirley Temple were the first interracial dance partnering in film history?
Bojangles Robinson
Who was the best known black leftist of the 1930s?
Richard Wright
The failure of which crop contributed greatly to Afro-Caribbean migration into the United States in the early twentieth century?
sugar
Which New Deal program benefitted large numbers of black farmers by allowing them to rent land from the government and take out loans to purchase plots of their own, before it was eviscerated by congressional opponents in 1942?
FSA
In the case of Monroe v. Dempsey (1923), the Supreme Court ruled that
prohibiting blacks from serving on the jury of a black defendant might deny the defendant of his right to a fair trial.
Who popularized the genre of gospel music through compositions such as Precious Lord, Take My Hand?
Thomas Dorsey
Whose play A Raisin in the Sun contributed significantly to the expanding opportunities for blacks in American theater?
Lorraine Hansberry
In the fall of September 1941, blacks represented what percentage of the 1.5 million men in the U.S. military?
5%
An Army base in Tuskegee, Alabama, famously provided blacks with training in
aviation.
Which pilot was also the Army's first black general and first black lieutenant general?
Benjamin O. Davis, Jr.
The White Citizens' Councils which sprang up in many southern states were formed primarily with which goal in mind?
blocking the integration of public schools
In which decade did black migration out of the South reach its highest numbers?
1940s
The Second World War began with the German invasion of which country in 1939?
Poland
Who was the 1948 presidential candidate of the States' Rights Democrats (or Dixiecrats)?
J. Strom Thurmond
In his 1941 State of the Union address President Roosevelt spoke of all of the following freedoms EXCEPT
freedom from discrimination.
With regard to nurses during most of the Second World War, the U.S. military
limited the enlistment of black women despite a great need for nurses.
Between 1942 and 1946, approximately how many African-American soldiers received pilot wings?
1000
Local 22 of the FTA was an influential labor union in which industry?
tobacco
What piece of anti-labor legislation led to the merging of the AFL and the CIO?
the Taft-Hartley Act
In the immediate wake of the Second World War, how many black service personnel received the nation's highest military honor, the Congressional Medal of Honor?
0
In the summer of 1942, blacks began to train at Camp Lejune to serve in what branch of the military, overturning an exclusionary policy which was as old as the service itself?
Marines
Which later poet laureate of the United States won a Pulitzer Prize for the novel Annie Allen in 1950?
Gwendolyn Brooks
Which president desegregated the armed forces and issued an executive order requiring fair employment in the federal service?
Harry S Truman
Whose Black Boy and Uncle Tom's Children made him one of the most successful black authors of the 1940s?
Richard Wright
The struggle of which country, long regarded as a symbol for all of Africa, to maintain its independence in the face of Italian aggression became a cause célèbre for African Americans in the 1930s?
Ethiopia
Roughly how many black men and women served in the U.S. military during the Second World War?
1,000,000
The two targets of the Double V campaign were
fascism abroad and racial discrimination at home.
Whom did President Roosevelt promote to the rank of brigadier general on the eve of the presidential election of 1940 in an attempt to assuage the feelings of black Americans upset by the perpetuation of racism in the military?
Benjamin O. Davis
During the Second World War, the U.S. Army on the German front
briefly experimented with a small number of integrated units at the tail end of the war.
The infamous segregationist Eugene Bull Connor was the police commissioner of which southern city?
Birmingham
The Black Panther Party of Self Defense was founded in 1966 in
Oakland, California.
What event on April 4, 1968 triggered a wave of rioting and looting in over 100 cities?
the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.
Having learned of the Montgomery Bus Boycott while on a mission to India, who settled in Nashville and began to teach the principles of nonviolence to future civil rights leaders?
James M. Lawson
The Montgomery Bus Boycott ended with
a Supreme Court decision affirming the segregation on public transportation was unconstitutional.
Before her arrest in 1955, Rosa Parks
had been active in the civil rights movement for a decade.
The cultural nationalist movement of the 1960s emphasized
the recovery of African rituals, clothing, and languages.
Charlie Cobb of SNCC originated what concept which was put into practice in Mississippi during the Freedom Summer of 1964?
starting freedom schools to expand black children's educational opportunities
After being drafted to fight in Vietnam, Muhammad Ali
suffered conviction and the loss of his title but refused to serve.
The Twenty-fourth Amendment helped to guarantee blacks' voting rights by banning
poll taxes.
Which NAACP official praised armed self-defense in his memoir iNegroes/i iwith/i iGuns/i and broadcast his militant message on his Radio Free Dixie radio show from exile in Cuba?
Robert F. Williams
With regard to its origins and organization, the Montgomery Bus Boycott
stemmed from the arrest of Rosa Parks, though several other black women had been arrested for the same crime the same year.
The Orangeburg Massacre was the killing of three black students by campus police in 1968 at which university?
South Carolina State University
To test the Supreme Court decision iMorgan/i v. iCommonwealth/i iof/i iVirginia/i in 1947, the Congress of Racial Equality
boarded southbound buses in the front seats.
Faith Ringgold is best known for telling stories through
quilts.
The first conflict in which black soldiers officially served as an integral part of a desegregated military was the
Korean War.
In the immediate aftermath of his first trip to Africa and the Middle East, Malcolm X called attention to
the international character of the black rights movement.
The mother of which teenage boy, who was murdered in 1955 for whistling at a white woman, insisted on publicizing the image of his corpse to force the world to recognize the crime committed against him?
Emmett Till
The Black Panthers' Ten-Point Program called for all of the following reforms EXCEPT
full equality between men and women.
Martin Luther King, Jr. became the leader of which organization which coordinated the Montgomery Bus Boycott?
MIA
The four students (Blair, McCain, McNeill, and Richmond) successfully launched the tactic of lunch counter sit-ins in
Greensboro, North Carolina.
The first civil rights bill since Reconstruction was signed into law by which president?
Eisenhower
Who gained national renown in 1964 as an unseated MFDP delegate for the testimony she offered about the personal violence she suffered while trying to exercise her constitutional rights?
Fannie Lou Hamer
Who was Amadou Diallo?
a Guinean immigrant killed by police who short forty-five rounds at him as he reached for his wallet
Thomas Sowell, Walter Williams, and Shelby Steele were all prominent African-American scholars who
opposed affirmative action in schools.
Which group's Nasty as They Wanna Be led to the arrest of its members on charges of obscenity after a performance in Florida, an arrest which the courts later overturned as a violation of free expression?
2 Live Crew
Hip Hop culture in the early 1980s included all of the following elements EXCEPT
rock and roll.
Colin Powell was the first African American to hold all of the following positions EXCEPT
Secretary of Defense.
Eldrick Woods achieved fame in which sport?
golf
Salt n Pepa, MC Lyte, and TLC were prominent examples of
female rappers.
Under President George H. W. Bush, Colin Powell held what important position?
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
When Jesse Jackson made his second bid for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1988, approximately what percentage of the votes cast did he receive?
24%
The murders of Tupac Shakur and Christopher "Biggie Smalls" Wallace are generally presented as a result of the contemporary rivalry between
East Coast and West Coast rappers.
Forty-five years after Brown v. Board of Education, American public schools
continued to show widespread evidence of de facto racial segregation.
Whom did President Ronald Reagan succeed in appointing as head of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 1982?
Clarence Thomas
Which black scholar upset many civil rights leaders with his argument in books like The Declining Significance of Race that race had become less important than class in proscribing the opportunities of the black underclass?
William Julius Wilson
Who was only the second black senator of the twentieth century and the first ever black woman to serve in the Senate?
Carol Mosely Braun
Which cofounder of Def Jams Records is arguably the first major producer of Hip Hop?
Russell Simmons
In both the 1984 and 1988 presidential elections, approximately what percentage of black voters cast their vote for the Democratic candidate?
90%
Released in 1979, the song "Rapper's Delight" was a breakthrough hit for
the Sugar Hill Gang.
Who was the first black female billionaire in the history of the United States?
Oprah Winfrey
In the 1988 presidential campaign, supporters of George H. W. Bush ran ads of "Willie" Horton, who was
a black felon who raped a white woman while on furlough in the state governed by Bush's Democratic opponent.
One reason that The Cosby Show was culturally important is that
it portrayed a successful, upper-middle-class black family.
Many African Americans objected to the policies of the Reagan administration for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
the economic burden imposed on black families by his insistence on repeatedly raising federal taxes.
In Jesse Jackson's 1984 presidential bid, his grassroots supporters were known as
the Rainbow Coalition.
Guion S. Bluford, Jr. and Mae E. Jamison were, respectively, the first black man and first black woman to
travel into outer space.
Which author became the first African-American recipient of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1993?
Toni Morrison
Democrats and blacks alleged that many African-American voters were systematically disenfranchised during the 2000 presidential election in which crucial state?
Florida
What effect did Hurricane Katrina have on race relations in the United States?
It left half of the African-American population convinced that the federal government responded slowly to Katrina because most of its victims were black.
Approximately what percentage of the black vote went to George W. Bush in the 2000 presidential election?
10
How many African Americans had served in the U.S. Senate throughout American history before Barack Obama took his seat there in 2005?
4
In what state was President Barack Obama born?
Hawaii
Which black performer notoriously proclaimed that, "George Bush doesn't care about black people" during a live broadcast of a Hurricane Katrina benefit concert?
Kanye West
Which of the following is NOT one of the major factors contributing to the new "Great Migration" of the early twenty-first century?
natural disasters
In 2000, blacks represented what percentage of the total American population?
13
Who was mayor of New Orleans when Hurricane Katrina struck in 2005?
Ray Nagin
Barack Obama's presidential candidacy was nearly derailed by an inflammatory sermon delivered by
Jeremiah Wright.
As of 2007, all of the following states' legislatures had issued apologies for their past roles in slavery EXCEPT
South Carolina.
As part of a new "Great Migration" in the early twenty-first century, African Americans are moving
from the Northeast to the South.
Which congressperson has, with little success, introduced legislation every year since 1989 in hopes of creating a commission to consider the possibility of paying reparations for slavery to African Americans?
John Conyers, Jr.
An African immigrant to the United States is LEAST likely to have emigrated from which of the following countries?
Liberia
Which Harvard scholar has pioneered the application of genetic technologies to genealogical research to help famous African Americans discover their ethnic heritage?
Henry Louis Gates, Jr.
What role did Hip Hop artists play in the 2008 presidential election?
During the 2008 election, Barack Obama gave rappers an insider role in his campaign, and reached out to the Hip Hop nation through new computer-based technologies.
Which segment of the black American population is most likely to attribute failures or difficulties to racism?
African Americans
African Americans constitute roughly what percentage of America's prison population?
47%
In the 2004 case of Vieth v. Jubelirer, the Supreme Court struck a blow against black electoral participation when it
placed strong restrictions on the practice of gerrymandering.
All of the following factors contribute to the unhealthiness of much of the black population EXCEPT
the reliance of most blacks on private or employment-based healthcare.
Which country's music scene has blended Hip Hop with its traditional tassou performances to produce international stars such as MC Solaar and Duggy Tee?
Senegal
In two separate 2007 cases, the Supreme Court struck down programs in Louisville and Seattle which
allowed children to attend schools outside their neighborhoods in the hopes of encouraging racial diversity.
Which of the following states has experienced the steepest decline in its African-American population?
California
Roughly what percentage of American Hispanics identify themselves as blacks?
2
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