Terms in this set (58)
About tw0-thirds of the body's fluid is within cells and termed ____ fluid
Intracellular fluid (ICF) is found only within
the cells of the body
Substances that can carry electrical current across cell membranes are called
Homeostatic mechanisms that monitor and adjust the composition of body fluids respond to changes in the ____ fluid
Of the three buffering mechanisms in the body, which is the strongest?
The bicarbonate buffer system is one of the chemical buffer systems of the body. How would the bicarbonate buffer system work if sodium hydroxide were added to a solution?
Carbonic acid would dissociate and join the hydroxyl group on the base to form water and sodium bicarbonate.
The respiratory system is one of the three systems that regulate acid-base balance in the body? How does it work to decrease in acidosis?
Carbonic acid is broken down into water and CO2; the CO2 is then exhaled.
In a respiratory acidosis the kidney would do which of the following?
The kidney would reabsorb bicarbonate and secrete hydrogen ions.
Ingesting too mucha antacid would cause which of the following acid-base disturbances?
Vomiting will cause which of the acid-base disturbance?
Severe anxiety would cause which type of acid-base disturbance? What would be the compensation?
respiratory alkalosis; kidneys would excrete HCO3
Which hormone stimulates the thirst mechanism?
In an adult female, the body consists about ____ percent of water.
What are the components of the ECF?
peritoneal fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, lymph, aqueous humor
The extracellular fluid (ECF) consists of the
plasma, interstitial fluid, lymph, cerebrospinal fluid
What will stimulate thirst?
Stimulation of osmoreceptors, an increase in osmotic pressure of interstitial fluid within the hypothalamus, drying the mucosa of the mouth and pharynx, angiotensin II acting on the hypothalamus
The anions in highest concentration in the extracellular fluid are
proteins, bicarbonate, and chloride
Which hormone plays a central role in determining the rate of sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion?
Which hormone most affects the osmolarity of blood?
Which hormone is released by heart muscles in response to excessive chamber volume?
The release of atrial naturetic peptides from the heart will cause the body to
decrease ECF and exert sodium ions
Angiotensin II production produces a coordinated elevation in the ECF volume by
triggering the production and secretion of aldosterone, causing the release of ADH, stimulating the kidneys to conserve sodium, stimulating thirst
promotes sodium retention in the kidneys
Elevated blood potassium triggers ____ release from the ____.
aldosterone, adrenal cortex
Drinking a liter of water will cause all of these changes EXCEPT ____
When water is lost, but electrolytes are retained,
osmosis moves water from the ICF to the ECF
is produced by the hypothalamus, stimulates water conversation by the kidneys, is released from the posterior pituitary gland, stimulates water intake.
Exchange between the two main subdivisions of ECF occurs primarily at the
A patient who has been both vomiting and having diarrhea is losing ___ from his body
hydrogen ion, sodium, water, bicarbonate ion
A patient with low blood potassium is suffering from ___
An increase in salt intake will lead to all of these changes EXCEPT ___
increased aldosterone secretion
An increase salt intake will lead to all these changes
increased ECF volume, increased sodium uptake, increased urinary sodium loss
The rate of uptake of sodium ions across the digestive membrane is directly proportional to the ____.
amount of sodium in the diet.
Which class of acid will have an increased concentration in someone who is suffocating?
What happens to pH when Pco2 increases above 45 mmHg?
pH will fall below 7.35
A chemical that minimizes changes in the pH of a body fluid by releasing of binding hydrogen ion is called a
Excess hydrogen ion is eliminated rom the body largely by
The primary role of the carbonic-acid-bicarbonate buffer system is to
limit pH changes causes by organic and fixed acids.
The normal pH range for ECF is
7.35 to 7.45
When the pH ______, a state of acidosis exists.
falls below 7.35
When the pH rises above 7.45, a state of ____ exists.
Which of the following buffer systems is the most important in the extracellular fluid?
carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system
The carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system functions mainly to
limit ECF pH changes caused by metabolism
A rise in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide will cause a ___ in pH and a ____ in blood bicarbonate levels
Severe kidney damage, such as glomerulonephritis, often leads to
A patient suffering from ketoacidosis due to diabetes mellitus can compensate for acid-base disturbance by _____
increasing both alveolar ventilation and hydrogen ion excretion.
A patient with severe diarrhea is losing all of the following EXCEPT ____ from his body.
Treating chronic heartburn with excessive sodium bicarbonate can lead to the acid-base disturbance known as
Which of these is NOT part of the maintenance of normal volume of body fluids?
___ promotes water reabsorption at the kidneys and stimulates thirst
Which of these is NOT a component of the extracellular fluid compartment?
If a patient suffers from hypervolemia, which of these might be the cause?
Aldosterone secretion is too high
Which of these is NOT a property of the intracellular fluid (ICF)?
The concentration of sodium ion exceeds that of potassium ions.
Which of the following statements is incorrect in regard to understanding fluid balance and electrolyte balance?
The body's content of water or electrolytes will decrease if dietary gains exceed losses to the environment.
In what body fluid compartment is there normally a high concentration of potassium?
the intracellular fluid (ICF)
Which hormone is important in regulating the amount of potassium and sodium in the body fluids?
If during dehydration the solute concentration in the ECF increases
an osmotic water shift from the ICF to ECF will occur
If a hypertonic sodium chloride solution is injected into a patient's vein, this will cause a shift of water from ___ and cause the cells to ___
the ICF to the ECF; shrink