1. Because of invasions, kings and emperors were too weak to maintain law and order so people needed protection for themselves, their homes, and their lands. In response to this basic need for protection, a decentralized political and economic structure evolved, known as feudalism
2. Feudalism was a loosely organized system of rule in which powerful local lords divided their landholdings among lesser lords. In exchange, these lesser lords, or vassals, pledged service and loyalty to the greater lord. The political and economic relationship between lords and vassals was based on the exchange of land for loyalty and military service. It was established by custom and tradition and by an exchange of pledges known as the feudal contract.
3. Under this system, a powerful lord granted his vassal a fief, or estate. As part of this agreement, the lord agreed to protect his vassal. In return, the vassal promised their loyalty to his lord. He also agreed to provide The Lord with 40 days of military service each year, certain money payments, and advice