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Praxis English to Speakers of Other Languages 0361
Terms in this set (79)
Theory that every native speaker retains the sound structure of that language and is more concerned with the sounds than with the physical process of creating the sounds.
Transcriptions that are used to distinguish between languages, accents, and individual speakers.
Developed a phonemic chart to illustrate how the 44 English phonemes are related to each other.
Phonemes , pitch, and stress
Affect the meaning of communication.
Analyzes the sound structure of the language.
The smallest unit of sound that affects meaning.
The difference in sound creates different words.
( p it and b it ) rhyming words
Sounds and letters in Enlgish language
44 speech sounds
Why is English not considered a phonetic language?
There is not a one-to-one correspondence between letters and sounds.
Determines the context or meaning.
Determines question or statement.
Can modify the meaning of words or sentences.
Different stresses on the syllable can actually modify the word's meaning.
Study of letters and letter combinations. While some phonetic rules apply, English has many exceptions.
Same spelling, same pronunciation, but have different meanings. (can: to be able to, can: a container )
Same spelling, different meaning.
( stalk -part of a plant / stalk - to follow)
Same pronunciation, different meaning and spelling.'
(would / wood)
Same spelling, different pronunciation and meaning.
( Polish / polish )
General American English
Typical English pronunciation in the U.S.
Phoneme spoken differently when it is near another phoneme.
(and is usually spoken as /n/ in rapid casual speech.
Begins with one vowel and gradually changes to another vowel within the same syllable.
( /oi/ in boil )
Omission of a sound between two words.
John and Peter "are going" to the store. The verb are is elided to a mere schwa.
Affricative , affricate (Phonology)
Complex speech sound.
Initial sounds of ch ild, and j oy.
Fricatives ( Phonology)
Consonant characterized by frictional passage of the expired breath through a narrowing at some point inthe vocal tract. ( v, s, z are some examples)
The sounds p, t, k, b, d ,and g.
( uh sound letters )
Shortening of pronunciation of words.
wanna, gimme, or lemme
L- like consonants sound.
Linking Sounds (Phonology)
Sounds that are joined together.
turn off = turn off
so I = soWi
do all = doWall
investigates the ways in which sounds are made
speech as it is heard or it's waveform
manipulation of waveform and tests to identify which aspects of sound are necessary for understanding
Roeder (Phonetic environment on pronunciation)
Said that there is more to being able to reproduce sounds than our linguistic apparatus.
Hard to reproduce sounds not in our native language.
( rolled /r/ )
The smallest unit of language system that has meaning.
They are the root word, prefix, and suffix.
They cannot be broken down into smaller units.
where the actual meaning is determined
syllable in front of the root word
added at the end of the word
alters tense or meaning
The process of how the words of a language are formed to create meaningful messages.
2 classes of words
rarely borrowed from other languages
( of, the, and )
content words that name objects, concepts, etc.
The process of breaking a word down into its component parts to determine its meaning.
Learning common roots, prefixes, and suffixes will help EL students how?
It will help them to decode unfamiliar words.
All infections are what?
suffixes and occur at the very end of the word
English is a subject-verb-object language.
describe countable objects
twelve chairs, an apple
describe things that cannot be counted
liberty, coffee, politics
modifies a noun or pronoun
what kind? how many? which?
modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb
how? when? where? how often? to what extent?
shows relationship between noun or pronoun and another word in a sentence
word that shows surprise or stong feelings
Help! Oh no,
and, but, or, nor
to ride, to sing, and to dance
time: after, before, when, as, as soon as, since, until
cause and effect: because, now that, since
contrast: although, even though, though
condition: if only, unless, whether or not, in that case
makes a statement
asks a question
gives a command
expresses a sense of urgency
Test of a complete sentence
Does it contain a subject and predicate and express a complete idea?
can stand alone or be joined to other clauses
contains at least one subject and one verb, but cannot stand alone as a complete sentence
group of words without a subject and predicate and cannot stand alone
Prepositional: in the room
Participial: walking down the street
Infinitive: to run
proposed transformational grammar
Sentence transformation transforms sentences
branch of linguistics concerned with
The "literal" meaning of a sentence is determined by:
the grammatical and lexical components and is unaffected by the context or what the speaker "meant" to say.
Speech that is not spoken, but UNDERSTOOD by the speaker.
Concerns implications the listener can make without actually being told. Includes presuppositions.
I tried to send an email to the director. (Implies that for some reason I was unsuccessful.
Stress and tone to convey meaning.
Utterances whose purpose is to get people to do things.
CONTRACTUAL SPEECH ACTS: promising, betting, agreeing on a plan, describing
figurative and lot literal
All spoken languages have phonemes:
vowels and consonants
The way a speaker uses pitch can:
convey different meanings of the same word.
English is not a tone language but sentence meaning may be determined by:
The study of how SOCIAL conditions influence the use of language. The relationship between language and the social elements.
study of how situations dictate language choice, body language, and degree of intimacy.
( at a bar)
non verbal pragmatic conventions
(appropriate distance, nodding)
Popular in 1960s.
Refers to English, which dominates many aspects of political and economic progress of the world.
Braj Kachru's three circles of World English
Inner circle: traditional English speaking countries, United Kingdom, US, Ireland, New Zealand, Australia, and Canada
Outer circle: ex-colonist and close tied countries,
India, Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, and African
Expanding circle: all other countries where English is learned for technology, travel, work, etc.,
South America, China, Spain
Dell Hymes, 1970's.
English language learners are expected to know grammar and the rules for its socially appropriate circumstances.
listening and reading
speaking and writing
Proposed two areas of proficiency skills
Viewing and visually representing
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