38 terms

PsychHB Ch. 19 - Social Cognition

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social psychology
scientific study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and actions are influenced by social environment
cognitive psychology
scientific study of basic mental abilities: perception, learning, memory, etc.
social cognition
scientific study of how people perceive, interpret, and remember information about selves and others
attitude
a belief and feeling about something that leads a person to behave in certain ways
conditioning
being "rewarded" by others for having a certain attitude
observational learning
learning by watching those we see around us
cognitive evaluation
forming an attitude about something based on evidence
persuasion
the attempt to influence people's attitudes and choices through argument or explanation
cognitive dissonance theory
theory that suggests that people make changes in their attitudes to reduce tension that occurs when their thoughts and attitudes are inconsistent with their actions
cognitive dissonance
unpleasant feeling when attitude and behavior are not consistent
Leon Festinger
psychologist who did important research on cognitive dissonance
propaganda
the spreading of ideas, information, or rumor for the purpose of helping or injuring an institution, a cause, or a person
prejudice
a negative attitude or emotional response toward a certain group and its individual members
stereotype
a belief about the personal qualities of a group of people
discrimination
actively mistreating or neglecting people because of their group membership
ingroup
group an individual belongs to and feels loyalty for
outgroup
group an individual has negative feelings toward
illusory correlation
biased perception and memory for connection between negative acts and minority groups
outgroup homogeneity effect
tendency to assume that within-group similarity is much stronger for outgroups than for ingroups
attraction
in social psychology, an attitude of liking (positive attraction) or disliking (negative attraction)
matching hypothesis
the view that people tend to choose other people similar to themselves in attractiveness and attitudes in the formation of interpersonal relationships
reciprocity
in interpersonal relationships, the tendency to return feelings and attitudes that are expressed about us
triangular theory of love
according to Sternberg, the components of love, which include passion, intimacy, and commitment
intimacy
feelings of closeness and concern for another person
passion
an aroused state of intense desire for another person
commitment
a pledge or promise
romantic love
intimacy + passion
liking
intimacy alone
companionate love
intimacy + commitment
infatuation
passion alone
fatuous
passion + commitment
consummate love
intimacy + passion + commitment
Stanford Prison Study
a study at a simulated prison found that participants' behavior changed once they adapted a social role of guard or prisoner
sales-resistance
a person's ability to turn down someone who is trying to sell them something; related to social anxiety and self-esteem
two-sided argument
an argument that presents one's argument along with an opposing argument for the purpose of discrediting the opposing view
central route
a persuasive approach that uses a factual, logical argument
peripheral route
a persuasive approach that is indirect and emotional in its approach
bias
a judgment based on personal point of view
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