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PS210 Final Exam Study Guide

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Founder of Functionalism at which university
John Dewey at University of Chicago
Academic discipline Dewey is best remembered for
Philosophy
Experience that motivated Dewey to reform public education
He taught at a high school and didn't like what was going on there
One of Dewey's only empirical studies
Language development in children
The publication that marked the founding of functionalism
Reflex Arc Concept by Dewey
Statement that best characterizes functionalism
Adaptive value of consciousness. Survival of the fittest
"Relationship between physiology and psychology"
Dewey's idea on how to triumph over the struggle for survival
Education
The topic which Dewey advised China, Japan, and Russia
Reforming education
The reason why Dewey left the University of Chicago
They merged his school with the dept. of education's Teacher's Training Institute without his consent
Angell's differentiation between structuralism and functionalism
Functionalism: psychology of mental operations; the how and why of consciousness; "what is the mind?"; more theoretical
Structuralism: psychology of mental elements; the what of consciousness; "what is the mind for?"; more practical
Carr's area of research
Visual perception and Comparative psychology (how animals respond)
The meaning of transfer of training
Training in one thing will make you better at something else (Ex. studying Latin helps with English)
The meaning of the Doctrine of Formal Discipline
You have to study new areas beyond formal disciplines (Ex. foreign languages) as well as basic disciplines (English) because it will transfer to other disciplines
What Woodworth and Angell disagreed about
The Doctrine of Formal Discipline
Woodworth's objection to clear-cut racial differences
It only looked at averages; ignored overlapping population distributions
Woodworth's contribution to America's efforts in WWI
Able to predict vulnerability to PTSD using the test he developed
The topic of Woodworth's book Dynamic Psychology
The effect of "drives"
The author of the O inserted between S and R (the role of the organism in the S-R process)
Woodworth
The person who influenced Thorndike's research on learning in chickens
Lloyd Morgan
The meaning of the Law of Effect
Successful behaviors are repeated, punished behaviors are ignored
The first American school of psychology
Functionalism
Thorndike's study of the transfer of training disproved what doctrine
Doctrine of Formal Discipline
The publisher who wrote "The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology"
John Dewey
The title of James' most important publication on psychology
Principles of Psychology
An example of the James-Lange Theory of emotions
Emotions follow a psychological response (Ex. see a bear, then respond, then realize you are scared)
The first nation to develop and use intelligence tests
China
How Broca estimated intelligence
Brain size vs. craneometry
What Broca concluded about gender differences in intelligence
Men are smarter than women because they have bigger brains
Why Binet got involved in intelligence testing
To identify which children needed special help "retarded"
Simon and Binet's preferred term for children's intelligence
Mental level
Binet and Simon's opinion of the IQ score
It is misleading and dangerous
Who translated the Binet-Simon scale into English and who Americanized the test
Goddard
The reason why Goddard investigated the Kallikak family
He wanted to do research on the heredity of feeblemindedness
The component of the Kallikak study Gould and Fechener disagreed about
Fechner said that instead of letting the evidence determine his theory, he had a theory then faked/manipulated the evidence
Goddard's suggestion about gifted children in school systems
Expand their experiences outside the classroom
Terman's goal in IQ testing
The changing of IQ of people over time
Why the Stanford-Binet test is named what it is
The translation was done at Stamford University
How participants in Terman's longitudinal study were selected
The smartest kids in the class
Yerke's research interest prior to WWI
Comparative psychology- studied Apes
The leader of psychologists contributions to WWI
Yerkes
The number of soldiers tested during WWI
1.7 million
The most sensational claim of the Army Testing Project
About half the soldiers were feebleminded
The average mental age of WWI draftees
13
Goddard's opinion about the type of government best for the U.S.
Gid rid of democracy. The most intelligent, wealthiest people should be in power
What the National Origins Act of 1924 established
Immigration quotas
The heart of the Lippman-Terman debate
Average mental age of Americans.
Terman- Americans on average are morons
Lipman- That's ridiculous
Walter Lippman's profession
Journalist
Burt's position on the heritability of intelligence
Nature (intelligence was inherited)
The controversial book that dealt with intelligence and class structure in the U.S.
The Bell Curve
The approach currently used in the U.S. to measure intelligence
Cognitive Correlation
Sechnov's research that influenced Pavlov
Research on reflexes
What the theory of Nervism claims
Nerves regulate bodily functions
How dogs behaved when metronome beats per minute were reduced
Got progressively weaker responses for slower rates
How extinction is accomplished
Don't pair reward with a condition stimulus (Stop rewarding behavior and it will go away)
What happened when Pavlov's assistant paired the CS with both a punishment and a reward
Got confused and developed neuroticism
When and why did Pavlov develop an interest in psychological disorders
Later on in life (age 75) after doing research on neurotic behavior and operant conditioning
Pavlov's observations regarding individual differences in dogs
They differ in their response to stimuli
How the Bolsheviks viewed Pavlov's work
They loved it and thought it had potential application to the population in Russia
Stimuli Twitmeyer used in conditioning research
A bell followed by a tap on the knee with a hammer
What Watson was like as a boy
Lazy troublemaker. He was a juvenile delinquent
Where Watson attended graduate school
The University of Chicago
Sensory cues needed by rats when navigating in a maze
None
What an antivivisectionist is
A person who opposes surgery on living animals
The person who recruited Watson to Johns Hopkins
James Baldwin
What Watson did during WWI
Identified people who had potential to be good pilots
The publication that marked the beginning of Behaviorism
Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It
Watson's opinion about introspection
It was unnecessary and faulty
Watson's view of the appropriate experimental technique for behavioral psychologists
The condition reflex
What was the title of Watson and Rayner's paper about little Albert
Conditioned Emotional Reactions
The difference in Peter's and Albert's experiments
Peter was desensitized so he didn't have the same fears as Albert, he learned not to be afraid
How Watson's view of nature vs. nurture changed as his behaviorism grew
He appreciated the role of nurture as time went on
Parenting recommendations of Watson and Rayner on caring for a child
Treat them firmly as young adults, do not spoil or love them
Emotions Watson found among newborns
Fear, anger/rage, and love
Zing-Yang Kuo's conclusions regarding instincts
Behaviors that were originally described as instincts are really habits
How would you characterize the neobehaviorism of Tolman in lower organisms
Goal directive, purposive. Intelligence in behavior, even in rats
What Tolman discovered when he changed the reward offered to rats in a maze
When he gave them good rewards, performance improved
The meaning of "purposive" in Purposive Behaviorism
To behave with a goal in mind
The meaning of latent learning
Learning without reinforcement (Ex. seeing names on doors knowing where people live without a need to know)
The person most closely associated with latent learning
Tolman
Method used in Tolman's place-learning task
The rats always found food at the same locations in the maze
McDougall classified what type of psychology as strict, near, and purposive?
(Neo) Behaviorism
Which neobehaviorist said "Stimuli which accompany a response tend, on their recurrence, to evoke that response"
Guthrie
Guthrie's view of the role of reinforcement in learning
An association will disappear if it isn't reinforced.
(If you reinforce something, it protects you from unlearning an association)
What Guthrie said about forgetting
You forget when you establish new associations (that replace the old ones)
Hull's contribution to the field of Aptitude Testing
Correlation- how you perform is correlated to the score on the test
The researcher who conducted experiments in hypnosis, aptitude testing, and behavior
Hull
What Hull's research discovered about hypnosis
Most people can be hypnotized (it was normally distributed)
Skinner's operant conditioning is an elaboration and improvement of what theory
Thorndike's Instrumental Conditioning
What became the primary dependent variable in the Skinner box research
Rate of response (of pigeons)
What happened to behavior when Skinner switched from continuous to intermittent reinforcement
The response stayed the same or increased
Who developed the procedure of "shaping"
Skinner
Who were Able, Ham, and Enos
3 space monkeys who were operantly conditioned
How did psychologists cure towel hoarders in a mental hospital
Every time they stole a towel, they gave patients 5 more. Eventually, the patients had too many.
What are the characteristics of Skinner's teaching machine
-Immediate reward for the correct answer (no lag)
-If you didn't get the answer right, you tried again at your own pace
-Present information in small steps, not all at once
What feature film in 1917 argued that God considered euthansia a loving act, and the souls of the euthanized babies would go to heaven
The Black Stork
Who was involuntarily sterilized in Virginia and whose case went to the Supreme Court, which upheld the legality of eugenics?
Carrie Buck
Which American psychologists provided the rationale for incarcerating morons and feebleminded children in state schools around the US?
Henry Goddard and Lewis Terman
What were the two major strategies of eugenics?
Negative- sterilization
Positive- selective breeding
Whose scientific works led social scientists to argue that human traits, such as intelligence and mortality, were biologically rooted?
Charles Darwin and Gregory Mendel
Which American President endorsed eugenics as a response to the problem of "defective" children?
Herbert Hoover