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277 terms

Ch. 11, 12, 14, 15

Meterology
STUDY
PLAY
regions where air masses originate
source regions
extremely large body of air with uniform temperature and humidity
air mass
should be generally flat and of uniform composition with light surface winds
source region
Usually areas dominated by surface high pressure
source region
NOT good source regions
mid-latitudes because surface temperature and moisture characteristics vary considerably
This region is a transition zone where air masses with different physical properties move in, clash, and produce an exciting array of weather activity.
mid-latitudes
The classification system for air masses is based on _____ and _____
temperature, humidity
P
polar
T
tropical
A
arctic
m
maritime
c
continental
continental Polar (cP)
dry, cold
continental Arctic (cA)
dry, extremely cold
maritime Polar (mP)
moist, cold
maritime Tropical (mT)
moist, hot
continental Tropical (cT)
dry, hot
cP
continental Polar
cA
continental Arctic
mP
maritime Polar
mT
maritime Tropical
cT
continental Tropical
North America cP and cA
- Source region:
N. Canada, Alaska
North American mP
- Source region:
North Pacific, North Atlantic
North American mT
- Source region:
Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, SE Pacific
North American cT
- Source Region:
SW US, Mexican Plateau
- Dry, cold, stable
North America cP and cA
- Cool, moist, unstable
North American mP
- Wet, warm, unstable
North American mT
- Hot, dry, stable
North American cT
- Pineapple Express, Bermuda High
North American mT
Air masses move in response to ____ ____
winds aloft
green-shaded regions
light rain and drizzle
pink-shaded regions
freezing rain and sleet
white-shaded region
snow
Downwind of the Rockies, the ____air is dry.
mP,
Air mass moves into California from Pacific.
maritime tropical (mT)
Warm, humid airflow which produces heavy rain and extensive flooding in northern and central California.
the pineapple express (mT)
blue points and red domes on the same line
Stationary front
Temperatures in blue
minimum temperatures
Temperatures in red
maximum temperatures
Heavy arrow
average upper-level flow
purple L and H
show average positions of upper-level trough and ridge
Texas norther is associated with these air masses
cP, cA
cP air passes over unfrozen lake, absorbs moisture and drops snow on leeward side of lake
Lake Effect Snow
cold air is not moving but there is a definite boundary between warm and cold air
stationary front
cold front overtakes the warm front
occluded front
cold, dry stable air replaces warm, moist unstable air
cold front
blue line with blue triangles
cold front
a front associated with vertical development of clouds
cold front
front associated with thunderstorms, squall lines
cold front
warm, moist unstable air overrides cold, dry stable air
warm front
red line with red semi-circles
warm front
front associated with horizontal cloud development and steady rain
warm front
a front represented by alternating red and blue line with blue triangles and red semi-circles
stationary front
a front with winds parallel but opposite direction
stationary front
a front with variable weather
stationary front
cold front catches up to and overtakes a warm front
occluded front
a purple line with purple triangles and semi-circles
occluded front
a front associated with cold occlusion and warm occlusion
occluded front
winds blow ____ around lows
cyclonically
what clock direction is "cyclonically"
counterclockwise
winds blow ____ around highs
anticyclonically
what clock direction is "anticyclonically"
clockwise
When the temperature contrast across a front lessens, the front will often weaken and dissipate.
frontolysis
An increase in temperature contrast across a front can cause it to strengthen and regenerate into a more vigorous frontal system
frontogenesis
107
1010.7mb
987
998.7mb
872
987.2mb
410
1041.0mb
a transition zone between the strong temperature and humidity differences of two different air masses
front
Name the four types of fronts.
Cold, Warm, Stationary, Occluded
An extratropical cyclone that forms and moves along a front. The circulation of winds about the cyclone tends to produce a wavelike deformation on the front.
wave cyclone
The piling up of air above a region
convergence
Small disturbances imbedded in a longwave
shortwave
Another term for Rossby waves
longwaves
A kink that forms along a front
frontal wave
The development or strengthening of a midlatitude storm system
cyclogenesis
The spreading out of air above a region
divergence
A storm system characterized by a large low-pressure center and numerous thunderstorms that produce strong winds and heavy rain.
Tropical Cyclones
Tropical cyclones feed on heat released when ____ air rises.
moist
Tropical cyclones feed on heat released when moist air rises resulting in _____ and ____ _____ contained in the moist air.
condensation, water vapor
Tropical Cyclones are fueled by a diferent mechanism than mid-latitude cyclones know as "____ ____ " storm systems
warm core
Tropical cyclones originate in the ____ near the equator.
doldrums
Tropical cyclones originate in the doldrums near the equator about ___ away from it.
10 degrees
The term "cyclones" refers to the cyclonic nature, with _____ rotation in the Northern Hemisphere and ____ rotation in the Southern Hemisphere.
counterclockwise, clockwise
The term "tropical" refers to their geographic origin of these systems, which form almost exclusively in tropical regions of the globe, and their formation in ____ ____ air masses.
maritime tropical
Because ____ is strongest in a tropical climate, it defines the initial domain of the tropical cyclone.
convection
In contrast to tropical storms, mid-latitude cyclones draw their energy mostly from pre-existing ____ temperature gradients in the atmosphere.
horizontal
To continue to drive its heat engine, ____ ____ must remain over warm water, which provides the needed atmopspheric moisture to keep the positive feedback loop running.
tropical cyclone
When a tropical cyclone passes over land, it is cut off from its _____ ____ and its strength diminishes rapidly.
heat source
Sequence of a hurricane formation
Tropical disturbance, tropical depression, tropical storm, hurricane
A ____ ____ is an organized system of clouds and thunderstorms with a defined, closed surface circulation and maximum sustained winds of less than 17 meters per second.
tropical depression
A tropical depression has no ____.
eye
A tropical depression is a ____ system.
low-pressure
A tropical storm is an organized system of strong _____.
Thunderstorms
A tropical storm has a distinctive ____ shape but an eye is not usually present.
cyclonic
A hurricane forms with a cluster of ____ rotating around an area of low pressure.
thunderstorms
When a hurricane forms there is a release of ____ ___ and divergence aloft.
latent heat
Hurricanes form over ____, ____ waters.
warm, tropical
Another name for a tropical wave
easterly wave
Lines that show wind flow patterns.
streamlines
Areas of converging winds that move along the same track as the prevailing wind.
waves in the trade winds in the Atlantic Ocean
Create instabilities in the atmosphere that may lead to the formation of hurricanes.
waves
Huracan
Caribbean Amerindian storm god from which hurricane is derived
Air pressure ____ rapidly as you approach the eye of the storm.
drops
In a hurricane ____, surface winds normally reach a maximum strength.
eyewall
Hurricanes north of the equator, surface winds blow _____
counterclockwise about its eye
A strong ____ ____ will harbor an area of sinking air at the center of circulation.If this area is strong enough, it can develop into a large eye.
tropical cyclone
Weather in the eye is normally calm and free of ____, although the ____ may be extremely violent
clouds, sea
The heaviest rain inside a Hurricane occurs in the ____
eyewall
Tall clouds in the eyewall of a Hurricane indicate the storm is ____
intensifying
Hurricane intensity scale
Saffir-Simpson
The water typically rises about ____ feet with a Category 1 hurricane.
4
The water may rise to ____ feet with a Category 5 hurricane.
22
____ ____ can produce extremely powerful winds and torrential rain.
Tropical cyclones
Tropical cyclones can produce extremely powerful ____ and torrential ____
winds, rain
Tropical cyclones develop over large bodies of ____ water.
warm
____ regions can receive significant damage from a ____ ____
costal, tropical cyclone
____regions are relatively safe from receiving strong winds from a tropical cyclone.
inland
Heavy rains from a tropical cyclone can produce significant ____ inland.
flooding
Tropical cyclones can produce storm ____ which can cause extensive coastal flooding.
surges
ACE
accumulated cyclone energy
The most common hurricane category to make landfall along the coastline of the United States from 1900 through 2007.
Category 1
These hurricane categories are considered major hurricanes
3,4,5
Hurricane watch is issued 24-48 hours before a hurricane is expected to make ____
landfall
Hurricane warning is issued when a storm is expected to strike the coast within ____ hours
24
Hurricanes take ___ paths
erratic
Statistical peak of the Atlantic hurricane season
September 10th
Tropical cyclone sin the northwest Pacific Ocean are the ____ on earth on average.
largest
"Very large" tropical cyclones have a radius of greater than ___ degrees
8
The passage of a tropical cyclone over the ocean can cause the ____ layers of the ocean to cool
upper
Cooler water from upwelling causes a tropical cyclone to ____
weaken
Damage mainly to trees, shrubbery, and anchored mobile homes
Saffir-Simpson Category 1
Some trees blown down; major damage to exposed mobile homes; some damage to roofs of buildings
Saffir-Simpson Category 2
Seed clouds to create rain, weaken hurricane, and reduce winds; no conclusive evidence it was effective
Operation STORMFURY
Which of the following statements is NOT correct?
(1) Ice nuclei are more plentiful in the atmosphere than condensation nuclei
(2) Generally, the smaller the pure water droplet, the lower the temperature at which it will freeze.
(3) Much of the rain falling in middle northern latitudes begins as snow.
(4) Ice crystals may grow in a cold cloud even though supercooled droplets do not.
(5) The larger the water drop, the higher its terminal velocity.
1
Suppose you are in Denver, Colorado (latitude 39.5°N). At noon on June 21, at what angle would you observe
the sun above the southern horizon?
(1) 74°
(2) 39.5°
(3) 66.5°
(4) 63°
(5) 23.5°
1
A building anticyclone means:
(1) the anticyclone is moving toward the east coast
(2) separate anticyclones are merging
(3) the central pressure is increasing
(4) the anticyclone is causing a middle latitude storm to form
(5) the central pressure is decreasing
3
Thick sheets of ice advanced over North America as far south as New York as recently as:
(1) 1816 (\the year without a summer")
(2) 2 million years ago
(3) 100 million years ago
(4) 1550
(5) 22,000 years ago
5
A wind reported at 315° would be a wind blowing from the:
(1) NW (2) SW (3) SE (4) NE (5) W
1
For air circulating counter-clockwise around a low pressure system in the Northern Hemisphere:
(1) the pressure gradient force points inward and the coriolis force points outward
(2) the centripetal force balances the frictional force
(3) the coriolis force balances the frictional force
(4) the coriolis force points inward and the pressure gradient force points outward
(5) the air moves in the direction of the net force
1
When viewed from the surface, the smallest individual cloud elements (puffs) are observed with which cloud?
(1) cumulus
(2) stratocumulus
(3) altocumulus
(4) cumulonimbus
(5) cirrocumulus
5
Hurricanes most commonly form:
(1) between 25° and 45° latitude
(2) between 45° and 65° latitude
(3) between 65° and 85° latitude
(4) between the equator and 5° latitude
(5) between 5° and 25° latitude
5
Upwelling occurs along the northern California coast because:
(1) water flows from the Atlantic into the Pacific because they are at different levels
(2) winds cause surface waters to move away from the coast
(3) of tidal motions
(4) of larger than normal fish hatches in El Nino years
(5) of seismic activity on the ocean bottom
2
What best describes a Baroclinic condition?
(1) when dew points rise while temperatures drop
(2) when isotherms cross contour lines
(3) when thunderstorms organize in a rotational motion
(4) a sudden change in air pressure that causes hives in some people
(5) when isotachs are parallel to isobars
2
On a surface weather map that shows an open wave cyclone, the warm sector can be observed:
(1) behind an advancing cold-occluded front
(2) ahead of an advancing cold-occluded front
(3) behind an advancing cold front
(4) ahead of an advancing warm front
(5) ahead of an advancing cold front
5
Which of the following is NOT an electromagnetic wave?
(1) blackbody radiation emitted by a rock
(2) sound waves
(3) microwaves
(4) infrared radiation
(5) visible light
2
A cold front is moving through your area, traveling from the northwest. During the passage of the cold front, surface
winds will most likely blow in the following way:
(1) they will be northwesterly both before and after the front passes
(2) they will be southwesterly before and southeasterly after the front passes
(3) they will be southwesterly before and northwesterly after the front passes
(4) they will be southeasterly both before and after the front passes
(5) they will be northwesterly before and calm after the front passes
3
An anemometer measures:
(1) temperature
(2) wind speed
(3) air pressure
(4) precipitation
(5) relative humidity
2
The force exerted by the wind blowing against an object is related to the wind speed, V, as:
(1) F is proportional to V
(2) F is proportional to V3
(3) F is proportional to V2
(4) F is proportional to the square root of V
(5) F is not a function of V
3
The most abundant gas in the atmosphere is:
(1) water vapor
(2) oxygen
(3) carbon dioxide
(4) nitrogen
(5) argon
4
At sunset in the middle latitudes, look for a rainbow toward the:
(1) north
(2) east
(3) you never find rainbows at sunset
(4) west
(5) south
2
Which of the following statements describe the snow-albedo positive feedback effect?
(1) melting snow absorbs latent heat and causes cooling of the earth
(2) melting snow reduces the earths albedo and causes cooling of the earth
(3) melting snow increases the earth's albedo and causes cooling of the earth
(4) a blanket of snow reflects sunlight and causes cooling of the earth
(5) a blanket of snow traps infrared radiation and causes warming of the earth
4
The blue color of the sky is due to:
(1) transmission of visible light through the ozone layer
(2) selective scattering of visible light by air molecules
(3) the filtering effect of water vapor in the earth's atmosphere
(4) the emission of blue light by oxygen molecules
(5) reflection of sunlight of of the earth's oceans
2
Which of the following properties of an object is something that enhances its ability to get hot when heat or energy is
applied to it?
(1) low melting point
(2) high porosity
(3) low albedo
(4) high heat capacity
(5) high thermal conductivity
3
In the region between 30° and 60° South latitude, the winds are generally:
(1) easterly
(2) southerly
(3) northerly
(4) calm
(5) westerly
5
Which of the following is NOT a primary way clouds are formed?
(1) forced lifting along topographical barriers
(2) surface heating and free convection
(3) convergence of surface air
(4) a subsidence inversion
(5) lifting along weather fronts
4
Which of the following conditions would NOT lead to a more stable atmosphere?
(1) daytime heating of the earth's surface
(2) an environmental lapse rate less than the moist adiabatic rate
(3) air moving over a cold surface
(4) nighttime cooling of the earth's surface
(5) a subsidence inversion
1
It takes longer to cook food in boiling water at high altitudes because:
(1) food cooks in the same amount of time at all altitudes
(2) the air is less dense and rapid evaporation cools the water by loss of latent heat
(3) the lower air pressure causes water to boil at a lower temperature
(4) the dryer air at high altitudes cools the water effectively through the latent heat of evaporation
(5) the cooler air conducts heat away from the food faster
3
Hurricanes derive their energy primarily from
(1) upper level winds
(2) latent heat
(3) the trade winds
(4) the trade wind inversion
(5) the coriolis force
2
According to the 3-cell general circulation model, on the surface at the equator we would NOT expect to find:
(1) light winds
(2) heavy showers
(3) the ITCZ
(4) a ridge of high pressure
(5) cumuliform clouds
4
Which is true about the change of state between water and ice?
(1) if heat is added slowly to an ice/water mixture that stays in equilibrium, the temperature of the mixture will slowly
rise
(2) pure ice can be raised to temperatures well above 0°C before melting starts
(3) pure water can be lowered to temperatures well below 0°C before freezing starts
(4) freezing water absorbs latent heat
(5) ice is more dense than water
3
Which of the following is true of the stratosphere?
(1) it has a temperature inversion
(2) the winds are generally calm
(3) it contains most of the weather we are familiar with on earth
(4) it is mostly warmer than the lower troposphere
(5) ozone is the most abundant gas
1
Streamlines on a weather map depict:
(1) dew point
(2) wind flow
(3) pressure
(4) ocean currents
(5) water temperature
2
What is true about refracted light?
(1) causes the sun to appear to set before it actually does
(2) is responsible for red sunsets
(3) is responsible for the "green flash"
(4) also known as Rayleigh scattering
(5) is responsible for the blue color of the sky
3
Which association below is NOT correct?
(1) cirrocumulus - layer cloud
(2) cirrostratus - ice cloud
(3) altostratus - middle cloud
(4) stratocumulus - low cloud
(5) cumulonimbus - thunderstorm
1
The smallest raindrops are called:
(1) graupel
(2) hail
(3) drizzle
(4) micrometeors
(5) trace droplets
3
Light or moderate-but-steady precipitation is most often associated with:
(1) altocumulus
(2) cumulonimbus
(3) cirrostratus
(4) nimbostratus
(5) cirrocumulus
4
If the air above a city becomes colder for an extended period, the pressure above the city at 5000 m will most likely_____, while the surface pressure will probably _____.
(1) decrease, increase
(2) stay the same, increase
(3) increase, increase
(4) decrease, decrease
(5) increase, decrease
1
The temperature and dew point at the surface are 25°C and 20°C , respectively. The temperature of the atmosphere 2000m directly above you is 15°C . Assuming the temperature from the surface to 2000 m changes uniformly with altitude, what would this atmosphere be called? (The moist adiabatic rate is 6° per 1000 m and the dry adiabatic rate is 10°C
per 1000 m).
(1) absolutely unstable
(2) conditionally unstable
(3) absolutely stable
(4) conditionally stable
(5) an inversion
3
Winds near an upper level high pressure system in the Southern Hemisphere will blow:
(1) counterclockwise around the high
(2) counterclockwise and outward around the high
(3) counterclockwise and inward around the high
(4) clockwise around the high
(5) clockwise and outward around the high
1
A parcel of rising air has a temperature of 20°C and a dew point of 15°C as it passes an altitude of 1000 m. The surrounding temperature of the atmosphere is 22°C , and is staying constant with altitude above 1000 m. What is likely to happen to the parcel now?
(1) water vapor in the parcel will immediately condense, forming a stratus cloud
(2) it will accelerate upwards at a faster pace
(3) it will continue upwards at a steady rate
(4) it will form into a cumulonimbus cloud
(5) it will slow its ascent and begin to fall
5
You live on the arctic circle, latitude 6612
° north. Which best describes your day on December 21?
(1) You are in twilight for 24 hours
(2) The sun appears briefly on the horizon at noon, with the rest of the day either twilight or dark.
(3) The sun is on the horizon for 12 hours and below the horizon for 12 hours.
(4) You are in total darkness for 24 hours.
(5) The sun appears on the horizon for 24 hours.
2
This type of precipitation starts out as snow, melts on its way down, then re-freezes in a deep freezing layer near the
surface.
(1) hail
(2) snow
(3) freezing rain
(4) sleet
(5) virga
4
A flag that consists of two red squares, each one having a black square in the middle, represents:
(1) a hurricane watch
(2) a gale warning
(3) a hurricane warning
(4) a storm warning
(5) a storm watch
3
Which statement is NOT true about a land breeze?
(1) They occur when the water is warmer than the land
(2) They occur at night.
(3) They are associated with clouds over the water.
(4) The surface winds are from water to land.
(5) They are associated with an upper level low over the land
4
A tropical storm becomes a hurricane when the winds exceed:
(1) 47 knots (54 mph) (2) 20 knots (23 mph) (3) 88 knots (102 mph) (4) 146 knots (169 mph) (5) 64 knots (74 mph)
5
The fog that forms over lakes in north Florida in early winter when a cP air mass flows over the lakes is called:
(1) radiation fog (2) evaporation-mixing fog (3) acid fog (4) upslope fog (5) advection fog
2
Light or moderate-but-steady precipitation is most often associated with ____clouds.
(1) nimbostratus
(2) cirrus
(3) cirrocumulus
(4) cumulonimbus
(5) cirrostratus
1
As the air temperature increases, with no addition of water vapor to the air, the dew point will:
(1) stay equal to the relative humidity
(2) stay equal to the air temperature
(3) decrease
(4) increase
(5) remain the same
5

The dew point will remain the same. It is the relative humidity that changes with changes in air temperature alone.
In a tropical (or easterly) wave:
(1) pressure gradients are large
(2) streamlines depict wind °ow that is generally westerly
(3) cloudiness and rain occur mostly on the western side of a trough of low pressure
(4) a trough of low pressure has the shape of a ridge of high pressure at mid-latitudes
(5) the speed of the wave is generally greater than 100 knots
4
What type of climate tends to prevail on the leeward side of a mountain range at the base of the mountain?
(1) warm and dry
(2) cold and dry
(3) frequent snow
(4) frequent rain
(5) moist and cool
1
Suppose it is snowing outside and the air is saturated. The air temperature and dew point are both 15°F and
the actual vapor pressure is 3 mb. If this air is brought indoors and warmed to 75°F , what would the relative humidity
of this air be, assuming that its moisture content does not change? (The saturation vapor pressure at 75°F is 30 mb).
(1) 4%
(2) 10%
(3) 100%
(4) 60%
(5) 40%
2
According to the polar front theory of a developing wave cyclone, energy for the storm is usually derived from all but
which one of the following:
(1) an increase of surface winds
(2) heat energy stored in the ground
(3) latent heat of condensation
(4) rising of warm air
(5) sinking of cold air
2
In clear weather, the air next to the ground is usually ____than the air above during the night , and than the
air above during the day.
(1) warmer, colder
(2) colder, warmer
(3) the same, the same
(4) warmer, warmer
(5) colder, colder
2
A wall cloud:
(1) is a cumulonimbus cloud with a flat top
(2) is a cumulonimbus cloud with straight vertical sides
(3) occurs on the forward edge of a gust front
(4) occurs when a mesocyclone extends below a thunderstorm base
(5) occurs on the leading edge of a squall line
4
When a beam of white light passes through a glass prism, it is separated into its component colors. This is called:
(1) diffraction
(2) selective scattering
(3) iridescence
(4) reflection
(5) dispersion
5
What type of weather front would be responsible for the following weather forecast: Increasing high cloudiness and cold
this morning. Clouds increasing and lowering this afternoon with a chance of snow or rain tonight. Precipitation ending
tomorrow morning. Turning much warmer. Winds light easterly today becoming southeasterly tonight and southwesterly
tomorrow."
(1) cold front (2) warm front (3) occluded front (4) stationary front (5) "back door" cold front
2
A sling psychrometer measures:
(1) precipitation (2) wind speed (3) air pressure (4) relative humidity (5) wind direction
4
Forecasting by the analogue method involves:
(1) predicting the weather based on a Prog
(2) assuming that the weather will not change in the near future
(3) recognizing weather features that have occurred before
(4) assuming weather systems will continue to move in the same direction and with the same speed as they have been
in the recent past
(5) predicting the weather based on the climate of the region
3
A friend of yours lives on a planet similar to Earth, except the atmospheric pressure at the surface is twice that of Earth.
How would he experience cooking food by boiling?
(1) Things would cook faster than on Earth, because high pressure has a tenderizing effect.
(2) Things would cook faster than on Earth, because the boiling water would be hotter.
(3) Things would cook the same as on Earth, because water always boils at 100°C.
(4) Things would cook slower than on Earth, because the boiling water would be cooler.
(5) Things would cook slower than on Earth, because the boiling water would be hotter.
2
What is NOT true about satellites?
(1) They can monitor wind direction, even when there are no clouds.
(2) They can be placed in an orbit that is stationary above any desired location on Earth.
(3) They can monitor hurricane movement.
(4) They can detect water vapor, which is invisible to the eye.
(5) They can distinguish high clouds from low clouds.
2
Geostrophic winds are produced by which two forces?
(1) Coriolis and pressure gradient
(2) pressure gradient and friction
(3) Coriolis and friction
(4) Coriolis and centripetal
(5) pressure gradient and centripetal
1
Which is NOT a factor that might promote hurricane formation?
(1) weak trade wind inversion
(2) humid air
(3) weak upper level winds
(4) warm water
(5) the ITCZ is displaced south of the equator in the Atlantic Ocean
5
Frost forms when:
(1) winds are strong as the temperature falls below freezing
(2) rain freezes before hitting the ground
(3) an unsaturated air parcel drops below freezing
(4) the dew point is reached after the freezing point is reached
(5) dew freezes
4
The polar front jet stream is located:
(1) above the polar front at the height of the Tropopause
(2) above the polar front at the height of the top of the Stratosphere
(3) at the polar front
(4) where the Hadley and Ferrel Cells meet
(5) south of the subtropical jet stream
1
You are standing on a mountaintop at an elevation of 18,000 ft, where the air pressure is 500 mb. What causes the air
pressure where you are standing?
(1) the weight of all of the air molecules in a column from sea level to the top of the atmosphere
(2) radiation pressure from the sun
(3) the ratio of oxygen to nitrogen molecules in the air at your elevation
(4) the weight of all of the air molecules below you
(5) the weight of all of the air molecules above you
5
Evidence suggests that throughout much of the Earth's history, the global climate was:
(1) more variable than it is today
(2) colder than it is today
(3) warmer than it is today
(4) less variable than it is today
(5) about the same temperature as it is today
3
Two ob jects, A and B, have the same mass, but the specific heat of B is larger than A. If both objects absorb equal
amounts of energy:
(1) A will become warmer than B
(2) both A and B will warm at the same rate
(3) B will get warmer and A will get colder
(4) B will become warmer than A
(5) A will get warmer and B will get colder
1
Clouds infrared radiation and visible radiation.
(1) transmit, emit
(2) reflect, reflect
(3) absorb, reflect
(4) absorb, absorb
(5) reflect, absorb
3
Streamlines on a weather map depict:
(1) water temperature
(2) wind flow
(3) ocean currents
(4) dew point
(5) pressure
2
What is NOT true about the ITCZ (intertropical convergence zone)?
(1) It is located where the trade winds from the northern and southern hemispheres meet.
(2) It is associated with rainy, unsettled weather.
(3) It is located in a region slightly north or south of the equator, depending on the season.
(4) It is a region where the air is generally rising.
(5) When it is located at the equator, hurricanes are likely to form.
5
What type of climate tends to prevail on the windward side of a mountain range near the top of the mountain?
(1) sunny and warm
(2) hot and dry
(3) cool and wet
(4) frequent tornadoes
(5) cold and dry
3
In clear weather, the air next to the ground is usually than the air above during the night , and than the
air above during the day.
(1) warmer, colder (2) colder, colder (3) colder, warmer (4) the same, the same (5) warmer, warmer
3
Which is NOT a factor that might promote hurricane formation?
(1) warm water
(2) humid air
(3) weak upper level winds
(4) weak trade wind inversion
(5) the ITCZ is displaced south of the equator in the Atlantic Ocean
5
A house is square, and is oriented with the walls facing north, south, east and west. A northerly breeze blows by the
house. Which side of the house would have the lowest pressure just outside of the wall?
(1) the south side
(2) the east and west sides
(3) the north side
(4) the north and south sides
(5) all sides would have the same pressure
1
Which statement is NOT true about a land breeze?
(1) They are associated with clouds over the water.
(2) They occur at night.
(3) They are associated with an upper level low over the land
(4) They occur when the water is warmer than the land
(5) The surface winds are from water to land.
5
The polar front jet stream is located:
(1) at the polar front
(2) above the polar front at the height of the Tropopause
(3) where the Hadley and Ferrel Cells meet
(4) south of the subtropical jet stream
(5) above the polar front at the height of the top of the Stratosphere
2
In a tropical (or easterly) wave:
(1) cloudiness and rain occur mostly on the western side of a trough of low pressure
(2) a trough of low pressure has the shape of a ridge of high pressure at mid-latitudes
(3) the speed of the wave is generally greater than 100 knots
(4) streamlines depict wind flow that is generally westerly
(5) pressure gradients are large
2
A wall cloud:
(1) occurs on the leading edge of a squall line
(2) occurs on the forward edge of a gust front
(3) occurs when a mesocyclone extends below a thunderstorm base
(4) is a cumulonimbus cloud with a °at top
(5) is a cumulonimbus cloud with straight vertical sides
3
You are standing on a mountaintop at an elevation of 18,000 ft . At this elevation, a column of air above you would
contain half as many air molecules as a column of air above you would contain if you were standing at sea level. What
is the atmospheric pressure where you are standing on the mountain?
(1) 1000mb (2) 1500mb (3) 750mb (4) 500mb (5) 180mb
4
A friend of yours lives on a planet similar to Earth, except the atmospheric pressure at the surface is half that of Earth.
How would he experience cooking food by boiling?
(1) Things would cook the same as on Earth, because water always boils at 100°C
(2) Things would cook slower than on Earth, because high pressure has a tenderizing effect
(3) Things would cook slower than on Earth, because the boiling water would be cooler
(4) Things would cook faster than on Earth, because the boiling water would be hotter
(5) Things would cook faster than on Earth, because the boiling water would be cooler.
3
A tropical storm becomes a hurricane when the winds exceed:
(1) 146 knots (169 mph) (2) 64 knots (74 mph) (3) 20 knots (23 mph) (4) 47 knots (54 mph) (5) 88 knots (102 mph)
2
Winds near a surface low pressure system in the Southern Hemisphere will blow:
(1) counterclockwise and outward around the low
(2) counterclockwise around the low
(3) clockwise and outward around the low
(4) clockwise and inward around the low
(5) clockwise around the low
4
Which of the following is true of the stratosphere?
(1) ozone is the most abundant gas
(2) it contains most of the weather we are familiar with on earth
(3) it has a temperature inversion
(4) it is mostly warmer than the lower troposphere
(5) the winds are generally calm
3
When a beam of white light passes through a glass prism, it is separated into its component colors. This is called:
(1) selective scattering (2) iridescence (3) reflection (4) dispersion (5) di®raction
4
Presently, the percent (by volume) of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Earth's atmosphere at sea level is about:
(1) 4%
(2) 375 parts per thousand, or 37.5%
(3) 375 parts per million, or 0.038%
(4) 70%
(5) 21%
3
Upwelling occurs along the northern California coast because:
(1) of seismic activity on the ocean bottom
(2) winds cause surface waters to move away from the coast
(3) of larger than normal fish hatches in El Nino years
(4) of tidal motions
(5) water flows from the Atlantic into the Pacific because they are at slightly different levels
2
A vertical profile of temperature, dew point and winds is called:
(1) a thermograph
(2) an inversion
(3) a radiosonde
(4) a sounding
(5) an algorithm
4
The sun is visible because of of light in the atmosphere.
(1) for a shorter time, refraction
(2) for a shorter time, reflection
(3) for a longer time, absorption
(4) for a longer time, refraction
(5) for a longer time, reflection
4
As the air temperature increases, with no addition of water vapor to the air, the dew point will:
(1) decrease
(2) increase
(3) stay equal to the air temperature
(4) stay equal to the relative humidity
(5) remain the same
5
Forecasting by the analogue method involves:
(1) assuming weather systems will continue to move in the same direction and with the same speed as they have been
in the recent past
(2) recognizing weather features that have occurred before
(3) assuming that the weather will not change in the near future
(4) predicting the weather based on the climate of the region
(5) predicting the weather based on a Prog
2
What is NOT true about satellites?
(1) They can monitor wind direction, even when there are no clouds.
(2) They can monitor hurricane movement.
(3) They can distinguish high clouds from low clouds.
(4) They can detect water vapor, which is invisible to the eye.
(5) They can be placed in an orbit that is stationary above any desired location on Earth.
5
Which of the following is NOT an electromagnetic wave?
(1) microwaves (2) infrared radiation (3) blackbody radiation emitted by a rock (4) visible light (5) sound waves
5
What best describes a baroclinic condition?
(1) when thunderstorms organize in a rotational motion
(2) a sudden change in air pressure that causes hives in some people
(3) when isotachs are parallel to isobars
(4) when dew points rise while temperatures drop
(5) when isotherms cross contour lines
5
A cold front is moving through your area, traveling from the northwest. During the passage of the cold front, surface
winds will most likely blow in the following way:
(1) they will be northwesterly both before and after the front passes
(2) they will be southwesterly before and southeasterly after the front passes
(3) they will be southeasterly both before and after the front passes
(4) they will be northwesterly before and calm after the front passes
(5) they will be southwesterly before and northwesterly after the front passes
5
Which is true about the change of state between water and ice?
(1) the vapor pressure above water and ice at the same temperature is the same
(2) if heat is added slowly to an ice/water mixture that stays in equilibrium, the temperature of the mixture will
slowly rise
(3) pure water can be lowered to temperatures well below 0°C before freezing starts
(4) freezing water absorbs latent heat
(5) pure water can be raised to temperatures well above 0°C before melting starts
3
A wind reported at 315° would be a wind blowing from the:
(1) S (2) NW (3) NE (4) SW (5) SE
2
According to the 3-cell general circulation model, at the equator we would NOT expect to find:
(1) cumuliform clouds (2) heavy showers (3) the ITCZ (4) light winds (5) surface high pressure
5
Which of the following is NOT a usual way that clouds are formed?
(1) lifting along weather fronts
(2) convergence of surface air
(3) surface heating and free convection
(4) orographic uplift
(5) a subsidence inversion
5
The force exerted by the wind blowing against an object is related to the wind speed, V , as:
(1) F is not a function of V
(2) F is proportional to V 3
(3) F is proportional to V
(4) F is proportional to V 2
(5) F is proportional to the square root of V
4
A general trend that is expected to last for 2 or 3 decades and is expected to enhance hurricane activity in the North
Atlantic is:
(1) increasing levels of CO2
(2) global warming
(3) increased volcanic activity
(4) a strengthening ocean conveyor belt
(5) increasing eccentricity of the earth's orbit
4
Which of the following statements is NOT correct?
(1) Generally, the smaller the pure water droplet, the lower the temperature at which it will freeze.
(2) Much of the rain falling in middle northern latitudes begins as snow.
(3) Ice crystals may grow in a cold cloud even though supercooled droplets do not.
(4) Ice nuclei are more plentiful in the atmosphere than condensation nuclei.
(5) The larger the water drop, the higher its terminal velocity.
4
Suppose the surface air temperature is 25°C. If the base of a cumulus cloud directly above you is 800 m,
what would be the approximate temperature at an altitude of 2300 m above you inside the cloud? (Hint: the dry
adiabatic rate is 10°C per 1000 m and the moist adiabatic rate is 6°C per 1000 m.)
(1) 25°C (2) 42°C (3) 8°C (4) 35°C (5) 2°C
3
Which of the following is true about the stratosphere?
(1) it contains most of the weather we are familiar with
(2) it has a temperature inversion
(3) ozone is the most abundant gas
(4) the winds are generally calm
(5) it is mostly warmer than the lower troposphere
2
Light or moderate-but-steady precipitation is most often associated with:
(1) cirrostratus (2) altocumulus (3) cirrocumulus (4) cumulonimbus (5) nimbostratus
5
In the region between 30° and 60° South latitude, the winds are generally:
(1) westerly (2) easterly (3) southerly (4) calm (5) northerly
1
Which below is the best indication that a severe thunderstorm is about to produce a tornado?
(1) large hail (2) a mammatus cloud (3) a gust front (4) a wall cloud (5) a roll cloud
4
When viewed from the surface of the earth, the smallest individual cloud elements (puffs) are observed with:
(1) stratocumulus (2) cumulonimbus (3) cirrocumulus (4) altocumulus (5) cumulus
3
A building anticyclone means:
(1) separate cyclones are merging
(2) the anticyclone is causing a middle latitude storm to form
(3) the central pressure is increasing
(4) the central pressure is decreasing
(5) the anticyclone is moving toward the east coast
3
Which of the following statements describe the snow-albedo positive feedback effect?
(1) Rising temperatures would lead to melting of snow, which absorbs latent heat and causes cooling of the earth.
(2) Rising temperatures would lead to more snow, which would reflect sunlight, leading to lower temperatures.
(3) Lowering temperatures would produce more snow, which would trap infrared energy and cause a warming of the
earth.
(4) Lowering temperatures would produce more snow, which would reflect sunlight, leading to lower temperatures.
(5) Lowering temperatures would lead to less snowfall, which would reflect less sunlight, leading to a warming of the
earth.
4
Which of the following conditions would lead to a more UNSTABLE atmosphere?
(1) daytime heating of the earth's surface
(2) nighttime cooling of the earth's surface
(3) a subsidence inversion
(4) air moving over a cold surface
(5) an environmental lapse rate less than the moist adiabatic rate
1
Severe thunderstorms are di®erent from air-mass thunderstorms in that severe thunderstorms:
(1) have a strong updraft and downdraft
(2) contain lightning and thunder
(3) produce hail
(4) have an anvil
(5) have a tilted updraft in the mature stage
5
The blue color of the sky is due to:
(1) the filtering effect of water vapor in the earth's atmosphere
(2) the emission of blue light by oxygen molecules
(3) transmission of visible light through the ozone layer
(4) selective scattering of visible light by air molecules
(5) reflection of sunlight of of the earth's oceans
4
Around a surface high pressure system in the Southern Hemisphere, the surface winds blow:
(1) counter-clockwise and inward
(2) counter-clockwise and outward
(3) clockwise and inward
(4) in no particular direction
(5) clockwise and outward
2
Which association below is NOT correct?
(1) cirrocumulus | layer cloud
(2) cumulonimbus | thunderstorm
(3) altostratus | middle cloud
(4) cirrostratus | ice cloud
(5) stratocumulus | low cloud
1
Which of the following properties of an object is something that enhances its ability to get hot when radiant energy is
applied to it?
(1) low melting point (2) high heat capacity (3) low albedo (4) high thermal conductivity (5) high porosity
3
For air circulating clockwise around a high pressure system far above the earth's surface in the Northern Hemisphere:
(1) the Coriolis force balances the frictional force
(2) air moves in the direction of the net force
(3) the pressure gradient force points inward and the Coriolis force points outward
(4) the Coriolis force points inward and the pressure gradient force points outward
(5) the centripetal force balances the frictional force
4
An analysis is:
(1) a forecast chart that shows the atmosphere at some future time
(2) a surface or upper-level chart that interprets the present weather patterns
(3) a forecast method used in long range weather prediction
(4) a method used to determine skill in predicting weather
(5) a forecast chart that compares past weather maps with those of the present
2
It takes longer to cook food in boiling water at high altitudes because:
(1) the cooler air conducts heat away from the food faster
(2) food cooks in the same amount of time at all altitudes
(3) the air is less dense and rapid evaporation cools the water by loss of latent heat
(4) the lower air pressure causes the water to boil at a lower temperature
(5) the dryer air at high altitudes cools the water through the latent heat of evaporation
4
What is true about refracted light?
(1) it causes the bottoms of clouds to appear white
(2) it is responsible for the blue color of the sky
(3) it causes the sun to appear to set after it actually does
(4) it is also known as Rayleigh scattering
(5) it is responsible for red sunsets
3
Lines connecting points of equal pressure are called:
a. isobars.
b. millibars.
c. contours.
d. isotherms.
e. a coordinate grid.
a
Low ____on a constant height chart corresponds to low ____on a constant pressure
chart.
a. pressures; pressures
b. pressures; heights
c. heights; pressures
d. heights; heights
b
The surface pressures at the bases of warm and cold columns of air are equal. Air pressure in the warm column of air will_____ with increasing height ___ than in the cold column.
a. decrease; more rapidly
b. decrease; more slowly
c. increase; more rapidly
d. increase; more slowly
b
Which of the following forces can not act to change the speed of the wind?
a. pressure gradient force
b. frictional force
c. Coriolis force
d. none of the above
c
Subsidence inversions are best ____developed with pressure areas because of the ___________ air motions associated with them.
a. high; rising
b. high; sinking
c. low; rising
d. low; sinking
b
If the environmental lapse rate is less than the moist adiabatic rate, the atmosphere is:
a. conditionally unstable.
b. absolutely stable.
c. absolutely unstable.
d. neutrally stable.
b
Which of the following conditions would be described as the most stable?
a. Environmental lapse rate is 13 oC per kilometer.
b. Environmental lapse rate is 3 oC per kilometer.
c. isothermal conditions
d. an inversion
d
Polar orbiting satellites:
a. remain above a fixed point over the North or South Pole.
b. pass directly over the same place on each orbit.
c. on each successive orbit view an area to the west of the previous orbit.
d. follow a line of constant latitude around the earth.
c
Lenticular clouds typically form _______________ a mountain range.
a. downwind of
b. upwind of
c. far away from
d. about 10 km above
a
If the air temperature remains constant, evaporating water into the air will ____
the dew point and ____the relative humidity.
a. increase; increase
b. increase; decrease
c. decrease; increase
d. decrease; decrease
a
Explain the processes by which cloud droplets grow large enough to rain. What is
'collision and coalescence'? What is the Bergeron Process?
1) Collision and coalescence: Cloud droplets collide with each other. If they stick to
each other, or coalesce, the drop grows. The faster the droplet descends the more
collisions can be expected. This process is most important in the tropics and when rain
drops are already big. For smaller droplets the most important process is:
2) The Bergeron process depends on the fact that the saturation vapor pressure with
respect to ice is less than the saturation vapor pressure with respect to water. Pure water
droplets freeze only at temperatures of -40°C. Tor Bergeron realized that as air reaches
saturation and a mixture of water and ice exists at the same time then the difference in
vapor pressures will cause the water droplets to evaporate and the ice crystals to grow
through sublimation.
Which below is NOT an atmospheric condition conducive to the formation of
hurricanes?
a. a region of converging surface winds at the surface
b. warm water
c. strong upper-level winds
d. cold air aloft
e. moist, humid surface air
c
Suppose it is warm and raining, and a cold front is moving toward your location.
Directly behind the cold front, it is cold and snowing. Still further behind the
front, the weather is cold and clearing. If the front is scheduled to pass your area
in 6 hours, a persistence forecast for your area for 12 hours from now would be:
a. cold and snowing.
b. cold and clearing.
c. cold and cloudy.
d. warm and raining.
e. not enough information on which to base a forecast.
d
When westerly winds flow over a north-south oriented mountain range in the
Northern Hemisphere such as the Rockies, are the winds deflected:
a) Northward
b) Southward
c) not deflected
d) not enough information
b
When the air is saturated, which of the following statements is not correct?
a. the air temperature equals the wet-bulb temperature
b. the relative humidity is 100%
c. the air temperature equals the dew point temperature
d. an increase in temperature will cause condensation to occur.
e. the wet bulb temperature equals the dew point temperature
d
Which of the following will increase in a rising parcel of air?
a. saturation vapor pressure
b. relative humidity
c. mixing ratio
d. air temperature
e. none of the above
b
At midnight in a shallow layer of air near the ground, the air temperature is 44 F
and the dew point temperature is 36 F. If the air cools at a rate of 2 F per hour
until the dew point is reached, and at a rate of 1 F per hour thereafter, then at 6:00
am:
a. the temperature will be 34 F and no condensation will be present
b. the temperature will be 32 F with frost and frozen dew present
c. the temperature will be 32 F and only frost will be present
d. the temperature will be 32 F and only frozen dew will be present
e. the temperature will be 34 F and only dew will be present
e
The rate at which the temperature changes inside a rising (or descending) parcel
of saturated air is called the:
a. environmental lapse rate
b. dry adiabatic lapse rate
c. moist adiabatic lapse rate
d. latent heat release rate
c
The difference between the "moist" and "dry" adiabatic rates is due to:
a. the fact that saturated air is always unstable
b. the fact that an unsaturated air parcel expands more rapidly than a saturated air
parcel
c. the fact that moist air weighs less than dry air
d. the fact that latent heat is released by a rising parcel of saturated air
d
What is a downburst? How does it form in a thunderstorm?
Beneath an intense thunderstorm, the downdraft may become localized so that it hits the
ground and spreads horizontally in a radial burst of wind, much like water pouring from
a tap and striking the sink below. Such downdrafts are called downbursts. A downburst
with winds extending only 4 km or less is termed a microburst. In the area of a
3
microburst, rapid changes in wind speed or wind direction (wind shear) poses a serious
hazard to aircraft.
What region of the country are tornadoes most likely to form during
different seasons? Why?
The Central Plains region is most susceptible to tornadoes. Especially in spring warm,
humid surface air is overlain by cooler, drier air aloft, producing a conditionally
unstable atmosphere. When a strong vertical wind shear exists and the surface air is
forced upward, large thunderstorms capable of spawning tornadoes may form. In winter
tornadoes are most likely to form over the southern Gulf states when the polar-front jet is
above this region, and the contrast between warm and cold air masses is greatest. In
summer, the contrast between air masses lessens, and the jet stream is normally near the
Canadian border; hence, tornado activity tends to be concentrated from the northern
plains eastward to New York State.
List and describe some of the conditions that are favorable to hurricane
development. What atmospheric conditions inhibit hurricane formation and
growth?
· Ocean temp. >26.5 °C to a depth of at least 50 m
· Decreasing atmospheric temperature with height
· High humidity in the lower-to-mid troposphere
· Low wind shear
· At least 500km off the equator
· A pre-existing disturbance like a tropical depression
What sources of error limit the accuracy of weather forecasts? What is
the theoretical maximum length of an accurate weather forecast and why is there a
maximum length? What information is used to produce seasonal climate forecasts?
Sources of error: error in our estimate of the current state of the atmosphere; error in the
numerics and parameterizations in the forecast model; and large sensitivities to even tiny
initial errors (chaos). The theoretical maximum is ~2 weeks due to the latter source of
error. Seasonal forecasts are based on the more slowly changing sea surface
temperature, snow cover and hydrology.
Why is the change in temperature from summer to winter smaller in the
Southern Hemisphere on average than in the Northern Hemisphere?
There are fewer large continents in the southern hemisphere, and the largest southern
hemisphere land masses are in the tropics.
Describe two potential positive feedback mechanisms potentially
amplifying the warming of the earth (global warming). Can you think of a negative
feedback mechanism?
Positive feedbacks:
· ice/snow albedo feedback
· the observed link between CO2 and global temperature (due for example to the
temperature dependence of ocean CO2 solubility)
Negative feedbacks:
· Warming leads to more reflective clouds which increase reflection of sunlight.