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Everything to know for pony club's C1 horsemanship test


the process of getting a horse fit so that he can go longer, faster, and works harder without getting tired.


Feed should be measured by lbs; 2-3 lbs of feed per 1000 lbs (total rations per day)

Bad Hay

Moldy; Dusty; Gray or white patches

Good Hay

Green color; Leafiness; Fine stems; Smells sweet


12 Gallons of water a day; Constant water; Buckets are clean; If water is very cold, dirty, scummy, smells bad, has hay, grain, or manure in it, he may not drink enough


Can not eat too much lush grass; Clear of weeds; May need to be seeded; Fertilized and treated with lime; Rotate pastures, allowing for pastures to "rest"

Bedding in MA

Shavings, Sawdust, Rubber Stall Mats

Conditions that foster internal & external parasites

Manure near food; Stagnant Water; Not cleaning your horse; Not changing the bedding

Procedure for parasite control

De-wormed on a constant schedule; Avoid keeping too many horses in one pasture; Avoid overgrazing; Rotate Pastures; Pick out the manure; Keep hay, feed, and water away from/ contaminated with manure; Lice: Apply a medicated powder; Check for ticks everyday; Keep barn clean; Flytraps; Fly repellent- spray on small area before use to check for irritation; Fly Predators- Last resort

Ways to control flies & bot eggs

Bot Eggs- (Small, yellow eggs attached to the hair) Check legs, shoulders, and chin; To Remove Bot eggs- Lubricate with a dab of shampoo, and scrape off with a piece of sandpaper, a Styrofoam bot block, or a special bot knife

Causes of Stable Vices

Nerves; Boredom; Anger; Needs something


strap must be taken off 1-2 hrs a day to let skin dry out and keep sore from forming

Wood Chewing

may have a vitamin/mineral deficiency (needs salt), hungry, bored

Stall Kicking

Angry; Jealous; likes noise





Strip Clip

unzipping...; Blanket only in coldest weather; To trim just the sweat, only if there is minimal sweat

Trace Clip

Parts that sweat the most, may or may not need a blanket, depending

Hunter Clip

Used on field hunters, to protect the legs and a saddle patch, blanketing necessary

Full Clip

On show horses, blanketing necessary

Good Foreleg Conformation

A vertical line (plumb line) runs from center of the shoulder blade, down the middle of the leg, to the fetlock joint; Half in front of the plumb line, half behind it; • Cannon bone vertical; Plumb line should run down from the point of buttock, down the back of the hock and leg down to the fetlock joint

Good Hind Leg Conformation

Cannon bone vertical; Plumb line should run down from the point of buttock, down the back of the hock and leg down to the fetlock joint; Lined up properly; Stifles must point out a little; Hocks and lower legs should be parallel, strait up and down; Not to close or wide apart

Good Lower Leg & Joint Conformation

Free from thickness or swelling (clean); Bones tendons and other structures should stand out clearly; Cannon bones fairly short w/ clean, strong, well developed tendons; Knees and Hocks should be wide, flat, and clean w/ clearly defined bones

Good Hoof Conformation

Large; Strong; Wide, well-developed heels; Prominent bars; Frog: Large, and should touch the ground; Sole arched or concave; Not flat; Weight carried on the wall; Walls should be strong and smooth, w/out cracks or rings

Standing Under

Leg set too far back; most behind plumb line

Camped Out in Front

Leg set out in front; most before plumb line

Over at the Knee

Knee slightly bent, lower leg is too far back

Back at the Knee (Calf Knee)

Knee bent back slightly; cannon bone slanting forward

Base Narrow

Legs closer at feet than chest; like walking on a tight rope (plaiting)

Base Wide

Legs wider at feet than chest; may lead to ringbone


Knees bend inward; inside plumb line; prone to splints

Bowed Knees

Knees bend outward; outside of plumb line

Bench Knees (Offset Knees)

Cannon bones do not line up strait exactly with center of knees; Set slightly outside; splints on the inside of the cannon bone

Toeing Out (Splay-Footed)

Toes point out; foot swings in toward opposite leg (winging in); can lead to interfering or lameness; can cause ringbone

Toeing In (Pigeon Toes)

Toes point out; foot swings outwards (paddling); may lead to ring bone; unlikely but could cause lameness

Camped Out Behind

Hind legs set too far back; behind plumb line

Standing Under (Sickle Hock)

Hock is slightly bent; lead to curbs, thoroughpins, bog spavins, or bone spavins

Too Strait (Post Leg)

Too straight in the hock and stifle joints

Cow Hocks

Hock point in towards each other, w/ cannon bone slanting outward; leads to bone spavins, bog spavins, or thoroughpins

Bowed Hocks

Hocks point outward, w/ cannon bones slanting inward; Leads to bog spavins of thoroughpins

Too Wide

Hind legs placed too far apart; short strides

Too Narrow

Hind legs too close together; lack good muscle development; cause injuries and lameness

Tendon "Tied in" Below the Knee

Small, narrow tendons; look as if they are squeezed in just below the knee; weak and poorly developed

Pasterns too long and sloping

Weak and easily injured; contribute bowed tendons

Pasterns too short and steep

Do not absorb shock well; gait rough; contribute to ringbone, sidebone, and navicular disease

Too-small Feet

Receive more concussion, especially to the navicular bone, and coffin bone; More prone to navicular disease

Contracted Heels

Heel is narrow; frog pinched in and small; does not touch the ground

Flat Soles

Weight to be carried on the sole; makes feet tender; "dropped sole"; be the result of laminitis or founder

Shelly Hooves

Thin brittle walls that crack and break off easily


Hard lumps that appear between the splint bones and cannon bones; hot and painful when it first happens; healed it becomes a blemish if it doesn't cause lameness; Foreleg

Bowed Tendon

Tendon is stretched too far; extremely painful causes lameness; after it heals it will never be as strong again; Foreleg

Navicular Disease

when the navicular bursa (pad), navicular bone, or the end of the tendon becomes inflamed and sore; starts as mild lameness that comes and goes; later the lameness becomes more severe; tries to walk on toes "tip-toe gait" and stumbles; common in middle aged horses; Foreleg


High-ringbone is arthritis in the joint between the two pastern bones; Low ringbone occurs between the end of the pastern bone and coffin bone inside the hoof; Low ringbone causes permanent lameness, and is more severe; Foreleg


When collateral cartilages of the coffin bone turn to bone; Gradual; usually does not cause lameness unless sidebones are very large or is broken; only an unsoundness if it causes lameness; Foreleg


Sprain of the plantar ligament; caused by extra sprain on back of hock; causes lameness; Hind leg

Bone Spavin

Arthritis in the small bones of the hock; may form "bone spurs"; painful and cause lameness; Cow hocks, bowed hocks, and very strait hocks are more prone; Hind Leg

Bog Spavin

Soft swelling on the front of the hock; not hot or painful; seldom causes lameness; Blemish but a sign the hocks have been under stress; Hind Leg


Caused by stress or strain on weak hocks, especially sickle hocks; sign of stress; does not usually cause stress; Hind Leg

Basic Equipment for Travel

Hay net; Water Bucket; At least 5 gallons of water (jerry can or bucket w/ snap on lid); Horse first-aid kit; Extra tie rope and chain end lead shank; Muck bucket, shovel, rake, broom, manure disposal bags

To treat Minor Wounds

1. Press a pad to wound and hold for pressure to stop bleeding
2. Hose wound and area around it w/ gentle cool water for 10 min
3. Clean wound gently w/ saline solution, sterile water, or bottled water and an antibacterial soap (Betadine or Phisohex); Use gauze pads; no double dipping; clean area above and work down
4. Gently blot wound dry w/ a sterile gauze square, or w/out touching it
5. If small dust with antibiotic powder or a small amount of antibiotic cream
6. If possible protect with bandage; Large sterile non-stick gauze dressing then stable bandage over it
7. If cannot be bandaged, can apply antibiotic powder or ointment; clean gently with running water; don't scrub wound itself

Why do we de-worm new horses?

To protect the other horses from possible getting worms if the new horses are on a different schedule or not de-wormed

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