8th Science ch. 5
Terms in this set (61)
What is a natural resource?
any natural material that is used by humans
Examples of natural resources?
water, petroleum, minerals, forests, and animals
What are renewable resources?
a natural resource that can be replaced at the same rate at which the resource is consumed
Examples of renewable resources?
What are nonrenewable resource?
a resource that forms at a rate that is much slower than the rate at which it is consumed
Examples of nonrenewable resources?
coal, petroleum and natural gas
How can we conserve energy?
by using only the resources that you need
ex. turn off lights when leaving a room, turn off the water when brushing teeth, have a full washing machine and walk, ride bike or bus instead of driving
What is recycling?
the process of reusing materials from waste or scrap
Examples of recycled items?
paper, pop cans, plastic containers, cardboard boxes, and glass
What are energy resources?
natural resources that humans use to generate energy
What are fossil fuels?
a nonrenewable energy resource formed from the remains of plants and animals that lived long ago
Examples of fossil fuels?
petroleum, coal, natural gas
How do we get energy from fossil fuels?
when the fossil fuel is burned
The energy from burning coal at a power plant produces what?
What are hydrocarbons?
hydrogen-carbon compounds that exist in fossil fuels
What is petroleum?
a liquid mixture of complex hydrocarbon compounds, used widely as a fuel source
What is crude oil?
another name for petroleum
Examples of fossil fuels separated from petroleum?
1. gasoline 2.jet fuel 3.kerosene
4.diesel fuel 5.fuel oil
What is black gold?
another name for crude oil because petroleum is very valuable
What is natural gas?
a gaseous mixture of hydrocarbons located under the Earth's surface
What is coal?
a fossil fuel that forms underground from partially decomposed plant material
What were some uses for coal?
1. to heat homes 2. transportation
What is coal used for now?
Coal is used at power plants to generate energy
How do fossil fuels form?
fossil fuels form from the buried remains of ancient organisms
How do petroleum and natural gas form?
petroleum and natural gas form from the remains of microscopic sea organisms on the bottom of the ocean floor
What are preamble rocks?
rocks that allow fluids such as petroleum and natural gas to move through them
How does coal form?
coal forms underground from decayed swamp plants over millions of years
4 stages of coal formation
1. peat 2. lignite 3. bituminous coal 4. anthracite
How does peat form?
bacteria and fungi change sunken swamp plants into peat
How does lignite form?
sediment buries the peat, which increases the pressure and temperature and the peat slowly changes into lignite
How does bituminous coal form?
as the lignite becomes more buried, the temperature and pressure continue to increase, lignite turns into bituminous coal
How does anthracite form?
as bituminous coal becomes more buried, the temperature and pressure continue to increase and bituminous coal turns into anthracite
What does the percentage of carbon represent in different forms of coal?
the higher the carbon content, the cleaner the material burns
Where are fossil fuels found?
on land, beneath the ocean; the US has large reserves of petroleum, natural gas and coal
How do we get fossil fuels?
1.Petroleum and natural gas are removed by drilling wells into rock
2.Oil wells exist on land and in the ocean; drilling removes the oil
3.Coal is removed by deep beneath the surface or by surface mining
What is offshore drilling?
drills mounted on platforms secured to the bottom of the ocean; used for drilling oil
What is surface mining?
also known as strip-mining, soil and rock are stripped from the Earth's surface to expose underlying coal
What is released when coal is burned?
What is sulfur dioxide?
it combines with moisture in the air to form sulfuric acid
What is sulfuric acid?
one of the acids in acid precipitation
What is acid precipitation?
rain, snow, or sleet that has a high concentration of acids because of air pollutants; negatively affects wildlife, plants, buildings, and statues
Problems with coal mining?
surface mining removes soil for plants and habitat for animals; also lowers water tables and pollutes water supplies; mines collapse and endanger miners lives
Problems with petroleum?
oil spills in the ocean hinder birds and fish
What is smog?
haze that forms when sunlight acts on industrial pollutants and burning fuels
What is nuclear energy?
energy released by a fission or fusion reaction
What is fission?
the process in which the nuclei of radioactive atoms are split into two or more smaller nuclei
How is electrical energy and nuclear energy measured?
What is fusion?
the joining of two or more nuclei to form a larger nucleus; releases a large amount of energy and happens naturally in the sun
What is chemical energy?
the energy released when a chemical compound reacts to produce new compounds
What are fuel cells?
power automobiles by converting chemical energy into electrical energy by reacting with hydrogen and water
fuel cell advantages?
create no pollution
more efficient than internal combustion engines
What is solar energy?
energy received by the Earth from the sun in the form radiation; a renewable resource
What are solar panels?
large panels made up of many solar cells wired together, mounted on roofs and buildings
What are solar collectors?
dark-colored boxes that have glass or plastic tops to heat water; common in Florida and California
Advantages and disadvantages of solar power?
advantages: pollution free, renewable
disadvantages: limited sunny days, expensive
What is wind power?
the use of a windmill to drive an electric generator
What is hydroelectric energy?
electrical energy produced by falling water
What is biomass?
organic matter that can be a source of energy
What is gasohol?
a mixture of gasoline and alcohol that is used as a fuel
What is geothermal energy?
the energy produced by heat within the Earth
What are geysers?
natural vents that discharge steam or water in a column into the air