Anatomy Final

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Pharyngeal portion
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Terms in this set (148)
Extrinsic____ muscles are muscles of the tongue that move the tongue as a unit.The intrinsic muscles•Superior Longitudinal •Inferior Longitudinal •Transverse •VerticalSuperior LongetudinalIntrinsic muscles Origin: Root of the tongue Insertion: Tip of the tongue Function: Elevate, shorten, and curl the tip of tongueInferior longetudinalIntrinsic muscles Origin: Root of the tongue Insertion: Tip of the tongue Function: Depress, shorten, and curl the tip of tongueTransverseOne of the intrinsic muscles Origin: Lingual septum (= median fibrous septum) Insertion: Dorsum and lateral margin of the tongue Function: Narrow and raise the sides of tongue •Vertical muscles run at right angles to the _____ muscles. •Fibers of ____ and vertical muscles take the same layer of the tongue.VerticalIntrinsic Muscles Origin: Dorsum of the tongue Insertion: Lower (inferior) surface of the tongue Function: Flatten and broaden the tongue •____ muscles run at right angles to the transverse muscles. •Fibers of transverse and ____ muscles take the same layer of the tongue.Extrinsic muscles•Styloglossus •Hyoglossus •Genioglossus •PalatoglossusStyloglossusExtrinsic Muscles Origin: Styloid process Insertion: Side of the tongue Function: Elevate and retract the tongueHyoglossusExtrinsic Muscles Origin: Hyoid bone Insertion: Posterior half of the tongue Function: Depress and retract the tongueGenioglossusExtrinsic Muscles Origin: Inside of the mandible Insertion: Tip and dorsum of the tongue; hyoid bone Function: Protrude, retract, and depress the tonguePalatoglossusExtrinsic muscles Origin: Soft palate Insertion: Back and side of the tongue Function: Elevate the tongue •Anterior faucial pillarsTongueMuscles of Mastication•Mandibular elevators and depressors •Among the strongest of the body.Mastication•The process of chewing food; preparing food for swallowing. •It requires the movement of the mandible so that the molars can make a solid, grinding contact. Muscles of ______ are among the strongest of the body.ElevatorsThe mandibular ______ are: •Masseter •Temporalis •Medial pterygoidDepressorsThe mandibular ______ are: •Lateral pterygoid (upper and lower heads) •Digastricus (= Digastric) anterior and posterior •Mylohyoid •GeniohyoidMasseterOrigin: Zygomatic process of the temporal bone Insertion: Ramus and coronoid process Function: Elevating the mandible (= closing the mouth) •Depression and elevation of the tempro-mandibular joint.TemporalisOrigin: Temporal and parietal bones Insertion: Ramus and coronoid process Function: Elevating the mandible (= closing the mouth) •Depression and elevation of the tempro-mandibular joint.Medial pterygoid (muscle)Origin: Medial pterygoid plate of sphenoid bond Insertion: Ramus Function: Elevating the mandible (= closing the mouth) •Depression and elevation of the tempro-mandibular joint.Medial pterygoid (location on the sphenoid bone)Lateral pterygoidOrigin: Lateral plate of sphenoid bond Insertion: Condylar process Function: Protruding and depressing the mandible •Upper and lower heads •Depression and elevation of the tempro-mandibular joint.Lateral pterygoid (location on sphenoid bone)Digastricus (Anterior and Posterior)Origin: Anterior-Inner surface of mandible; Posterior-Mastoid process Insertion: Hyoid bone by means of the intermediate tendon Function: Depressing the mandible •Anterior and posteriorDigastricus (Inferior view)MylohyoidOrigin: Inner surface of mandible Insertion: Hyoid bone Function: Depressing the mandible •Fan-like structureGeniohyoidOrigin: Inner surface of mandible Insertion: Hyoid bone Function: Depressing the mandible •Medially locatedMylohyoid and Geniohyoid comparisonSoft palate/velum•A combination of muscles, palatine (= palatal) aponeurosis, nerves, and blood supply covered by mucous membrane lining •It is elevated during most speaking time and when swallowing. •It is depressed only when using a few speech consonants in English /m/ vs. /b/ /n/ vs. /d/ / ŋ / vs. /g/Muscles of the velum•Soft palate/velum •No bones •Palatal aponeurosis They elevate the soft palate to completely separate oral from nasal cavities.Palatal aponeurosisMaking up the mid-front portion of the soft palateElevatorsThe ___ of the velum are: •Levator veli palatini •Musculus uvulaeDepressorsThe ____ of the velum are: •Palatoglossus •PalatopharyngeusTensor veli palatiniOrigin: Sphenoid bone and lateral Eustachian tube wall Insertion: Palatal aponeurosis (flat tendon) Function: Dilating the Eustachian tubeLevator veli palatiniAn elevator of the velum Origin: Temporal bone and medial Eustachian tube wall Insertion: Palatal aponeurosis Function: Elevate the velum (primary elevator)Musculus uvulaeAn elevator of the velum Origin: Palatine bone and palatal aponeurosis Insertion: Mucous membrane cover of the velum Function: Elevate and shorten the velum •Medial and posterior portions of the velumPalatoglossusAn depressor of the velum Origin: Palatal aponeurosis Insertion: Sides of posterior tongue Function: Depress the velum (elevate the tongue) Anterior faucial pillarsPalatopharyngeusAn depressor of the velum Origin: Midline of the velum Insertion: Posterior margin of the thyroid cartilage Function: Depress the velum •Posterior faucial pillarsLevator veli palatini (Diagram Lateral 2)Levator veli palatini (Diagram Anterior 2)Palatoglossus (Diagram Anterior 3)Palatoglossus (Diagram Lateral 3)Palatopharyngeus (Diagram Anterior 4)Palatopharyngeus (Diagram Lateral 4)Tensor veli palatini (Diagram Anterior 1)Tensor veli palatini (Diagram Lateral 1)DeglutitionThe process of swallowingNutrition of the Neonate•Infantile reflexes •Swallowing patterns of neonates •Infant's oral-pharyngeal structuresRooting, sucking•The newborn gains nutrition through their ___and ___ reflexes. •They have been linked to each otherlips, cheeksInfants respond to tactile stimulation of their __ or ___.Rooting, 4•The ____ reflex causes infants to turn their heads towards the stimulus and open their mouth. •This disappears around __ months of age as it gradually comes under voluntary control.Sucking, 3•The ____ reflex causes the infant to instinctively suck anything that touches the roof of their mouth. •It gradually disappears around at __ months of ageVelum, epiglottis, tongueThe ___ of the infant "locks" into the space between their ____ and their ____. This action seals off the infant's airway. •*The infant can breathe while sucking and swallowing.*BolusThe ___ (mass of food) cannot enter the respiratory passageway.ApneicInfants can swallow while breathing although the swallow pattern of infants includes an ___ period, in which respiration ceases.smaller, elevated, larger, elevated, dentitionInfants' oral-pharyngeal structures differ than those of an adult in the following ways.: •Their oral cavity is ___. •Their larynx is ___ at birth. •Their velum is relatively ___. •Their hyoid is___ and relatively forward. •There is no ___ in neonates.Stages of Mastication and Deglutition (Adults)•Oral preparatory stage (mastication) •Oral stage (propulsion of bolus) •Pharyngeal stage (pharyngeal swallow) •Esophageal stage (esophageal transit)Oral Preparatory Stage (Mastication)Muscles involved: •Facial muscles •Mandibular muscles •Tongue muscles •Velar muscles •Food prepared for swallowing •Food kept in mouth by sealing of lips •Food mixed with saliva to form a bolus in preparation for swallowingOral StageMuscles involved: •Mandibular muscles •Tongue muscles •The bolus is transmitted to the pharynx •The oral stage begins when the bolus is finally ready to be swallowed. •Tongue base: elevated during chewing, but depressed and pulled posteriorly for the oral stage •Mastication stops. •The anterior tongue elevates to the hard palate and squeezes the bolus back toward the faucial pillars.Pharyngeal Stage•Consists of a complex sequence of controlled events. •Begins when bolus reaches faucial pillars or the posterior base of the tongue leads to the elevation of the soft palate, which was depressed. *The oropharynx is separated from the nasopharynx.* Respiration ceases reflexively at this point. •Air can't escape or enter for respiration. •The airway must be protected when food is entering the pharynx. •A tight seal is formed to protect the airway. •Food passes over epiglottis through the pyriform sinuses to the esophagus.adduct, constrict, depresses, elevatesHow to protect the airway: •The vocal folds ____ •The false vocal folds ____ •The epiglottis ____ •The larynx ____Elevated, retracted, sealed, sealedOnce the oropharynx is separates from the nasopharynx, respiration ceases reflexively at this point. •The velum is ____ •The tongue is ____ The lips are ____ The oral and nasal outlets are ___Esophageal Stage•Final stage of mastication and deglutition •Purely reflexive and not within voluntary control •Begins when bolus reaches the orifice of the esophagus. •Swallowing involves peristaltic (wavelike) movement of the bolus through the esophagus. •During swallowing, respiration ceases for a second. •The bolus of food enters the stomach.Make up the hearing system•Outer ear •Middle ear •Inner ear •Auditory physiologyAudition•The process associated with hearing •Essential element of verbal communication •The ears change acoustic energy into electrochemical energy.Outer/middle/inner ear, auditory pathwaysStructures of the earPinna• =Outer ear •Prominence referred to as "the ear" •Structure provided by a cartilaginous framework •Functions: Capturing the sound energy and localizing sound in space •Funnels acoustical information to the external auditory meatus and aids the localization of sound in space.Helix•(Greek: coil, spiral) •Forms the curled margin of the pinnaConcha•(Greek: shell) •The entrance to the ear canal *Includes the cymba ___*Cavum Concha•(a hollow or sinus) •The deep portion of the conchaCymba Concha•The anterior extension of the helix marking the anterior entrance to the conchaAntihelix•A similar fold of tissue marking the entrance to the conchaTragus•(Greek: goat) •A small projection in front of the external opening of the ear •A flap of skin-covered cartilageAntitragusPosterior and inferior to the tragusLobule/lobeBelow the antitragusScaphoid•(shaped like a boat) fossa (small cavity or depression) •The depression between helix and antihelixCrura•(Plural of crus: shank) of antihelix •The antihelix bifurcates superiorly, producing the crura antihelicisTriangular fossa•The space between the crura of antihelix •End of pinnaExternal Auditory Measus•External ear canal •Meatus acousticus externus •Terminates at the tympanic membrane •Two-thirds of ear canal housed in temporal bone (Medial) •One-third of ear canal composed of cartilaginous parts (Lateral)Tympanic Membrane•Also known as the eardrum •Marking the boundary between the outer and middle ear •An extremely thin three layered sheet of tissue •Concave (rounded inward) Outer: Skin lining Intermittent: Fibrous layer Inner: Mucous layerMiddle Ear•Contains the three smallest bones of the body •Bones of this part are called ossicles (L, ossiculum: little bone) •Ossicular chain of three articulated bones provides the means for transmission of acoustic energy impinging on the TM to the inner ear.Malleus, incus and stapesThe ossicles are...Malleus•One of the ossicles •Largest of the ossicles •Provides the point of attachment with the TMHeadPart of the malleus •(Caput): The bulk of the boneNeckPart of the malleusManubriumPart of the malleus (handle): A long process attaching to the TM along its lengthAnterior and lateral processesParts of the malleus Provide points of attachment for ligamentsIncus•Shaped like an anvil •Provides intermediate link for the ossicular chainLong processPart of the incusShort ProcessPart of the incusLenticular process•Part of the incus •(lens like)Articular surfacePart of the incusStapes= Stirrup •Third bone of ossicular chain •Helps to transmit sound vibrations from eardrum to oval windowHeadTop portionAnterior and posterior cruraFootplateJoints in the middle ear•Malleoincudal joint (Saddle) •Incudostapedial joint (Ball and socket)Malleoincudal/SaddleThe _____ joint connects the head of the malleus to the anterior surface of the incusIncudostapedial/ball and socket jointThe _____ /___ ___ ___ joint connects the lenticular process of the incus to the head of the stapes.Tympanic musclesInclude the *stapedius* and *tensor tympani* muscles •Contraction of these muscles reduces the strength of the signal reaching the cochlea; Protecting the cochlea due to high signal intensity •Muscles of the middle ear that are attached to the ossicles •Smallest muscles of human body •Stiffening the ossicular chain •Stiffening the middle ear transmission systemstapediusOne of the two tympanic muscles Origin: Posterior wall of middle ear Insertion: Stapes Function: Stiffening the ossicular chainTensor tympaniOrigin: Eustachian tube and sphenoid bone Insertion: Malleus (manubrium) Function: Stiffening the ossicular chainUmbo (6)(behind membrane): The most depressed portion of this concavityCone of light (7)•The location inferior and anterior to the umbo •It reflects the light of the audiologist's otoscopePars flaccida (1)•The superior quadrant of the TM •The flaccid part which does not have an intermittent fibrous layer.Manubrium(behind membrane): The handle of the malleusMedial WallIncludes three parts: •Oval Window •Round Window •Promontory of the cochleaOval Window•In which the footplate of the stapes is embedded •Communicates between scala vestibuli and middle ear spaceRound Window•An opening sealed by the secondary tympanic membrane (flexibility-2:55) •Communicates between scala tympani and middle earPromontory of the cochleaA bulge created by the basal turn of the cochleaEustachian tube= Auditory tube •Responsible for aeration of middle ear •Anterior wall of the middle ear houses the entrance to the this.Osseous or Bony Vestibule•(Greek: maze) •Contains the inner ear structures (membranous labyrinth) •The vestibule space is continuous with both the vestibular mechanism and the cochlea.Osseous Semicircular Canals•Three canals of the vestibular system •Envisioning three rings attaches to a ball (the vestibule)Osseous Cochlear LabyrinthDivided into two incomplete chambers: Scala vestibuli and Scala tympani •Looks like a coiled snail shell •This very important structure forms the point of attachment for the scala media. •Houses the sensory organ for hearingScala vestibuliThe upper chamberScala tympaniThe lower chamberPerilymph•The clear, watery fluid that fills the scala vestibuli, scala tympani, and the perilymphatic spaces within the vestibule and around the semicircular canals •Similar to extracellular fluid in its ionic composition.Know thisApexThe ___ of the osseous cochlear labyrinth coils out from its base near the vestibule, wrapping around itself almost 3 times before reaching its apex.Basilar membraneThe ___ ____ of the osseous cochlear labyrinth forms the floor of the scala media, separating the scala media and scala tympani. •Thicker and wider toward apex •Traveling wave always travels from base to apex due to the impedance gradient.Helicotrema(Gk. Helix, coil + trema, hole): Establishes communication between the scala vestibule and scala tympani.Membranous Labyrinth•Found within the cavity of osseous or bony labyrinth •Filled with fluid called endolymph which fills the scala media (= cochlear duct).Kno disNd disInner ear fluidsPerilymph•(Zemlin) •The clear, watery fluid that fills the scala vestibuli, scala tympani, and the perilymphatic spaces within the vestibule and around the semicircular canals •Similar to extracellular fluid in its ionic composition.Endolymph•(Zemlin) •Similar to perilymph but has an ionic composition similar to intracellular fluid. •Fills the scala media (=cochlear duct.)Organ of Corti•Sensory organ of hearing within membranous labyrinth •Has four rows of hair cells; Three rows of outer cells and a single row of inner hair cells •The outer three rows of hair cells are separated from the single row of inner hair cells by the tunnel of Corti.Stereocilia(sensory hairs) protrude from the top surface of hair cells.Know figureMiddle ear•= Impedance-matching device •Impedance: Resistance to the flow of energy •Increasing the pressure approaching the cochlea, thereby overcoming the resistance to flow of energy •Matching the impedance of two conductive systems, the outer ear and the cochleaInner Ear•Contains the sensors for balance (The vestibular system) and the sensors for hearing (The cochlea) •Is made up of the osseous or bony labyrinth •Movement of the TM is translated into an analogous movement of the stapes footplate and the fluid in the scala vestibuli through the oval window. •Compression of the fluid of the scala vestibuli is translated directly to the basilar membrane, and the disturbance at the basilar membrane initiates the traveling wave.Traveling wave•Wave-like action of basilar membrane •Moves along the basilar membrane until it reaches the point of maximum growth •The traveling wave damps after reaching the maximum growth.Dimensions of basilar membraneMechanical, electricalAuditory Mechanism _____ Events •Traveling wave always travels from base to apex due to the impedance gradient of basilar membrane. Auditory Mechanism ____ Events Hair cells are displaced as the traveling wave moves along the basilar membrane. •Initiation of electrical events in cochlea •Depends on sterocilia. •Basilar membrane is displaced toward scala vestibuli. •Hair cells are activated. •Electrical potentials are initiated.Outer Hair Cells (OHC's)Amplifying the movement of the basilar membrane in a response to a stimulus.Inner Hair Cells (IHC's)•Sensory receptors •Responsible for approximately 95% of the information sent to the Central Nervous System (CNS)Tonotopic OrganizationThe basilar membrane has different tone frequencies are transmitted separately along specific parts of the membrane.Tonotopic Organization