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Chapers 13, 14, 15, & 12

Define Infection

The colonizing of microbes

Define normal/resident microbiota

Lives in or on the body

Define transient microbiota

Non-pathogenic, passes through our system

What relationship does a pathagen have with a host?


4 ways normal microbiota is acquired

Birth canal, food, breathing, touch

Define opportunistic pathagens

Only affect the immune-compromised

Define True pathogens

Infect everyone (not just the weak or compromised)

4 different modes of microbial entry

Skin, mouth, respiratory, urinogenital

Most popular mode of microbial entry


Types of direct modes of transmission

Contact, vertical, biological

Types of indirect modes of transmission

From a fomite

Prenatal vs Perinatal

Pre: in utero
Peri: during or right after birth

4 diseases that can be passed from mother to child in utero

Syphilis, reubella, herpes, toroplasmosis

What function under the 2nd line of defense do the WBCs perform?


3 Physical methods of barrier

Skin, cilia in respiratory tract & mucous secretions

2 Chemical methods of barrier

Enzymes (mucinase, keratinase), sweat

5 stages of disease

1st exposure, incubation, prodromal (initial, no symptoms), height of infection, convalescent (recovery)

Sign vs Symptom

Sign: something seen or measurable
Symptom: patient's experience

Define: inflammation (5)

Rubor (redness), Calor (warmth), Tumor (swelling), Dolor (pain), Loss of function

Define: bacterimia & viremia

Bacteria & virus circulating in the blood

6 modes of exit for a pathogen

Dead skin cells, feces, blood, urinogenital tract, saliva, mucous

Biological vs mechanical vectors

Bio: biologically relevant to the life cycle of the pathogen
Mech: animal/insect carries the microbe from point A to B

Define: fomite

An inanimate object that harbors a pathogen

Define: Epidemiology

The science of how disease is spread

Define: Epidemic

A disease that spreads rapidly

Define: Pandemic


Define: Endemic

Confined to a small geographical area

Define: Leukopenia

a low blood cell count

Define: 1st & 2nd line of defense

1st: Physical, chemical & genetic
2nd: inflammation, interferon, phagocytosis & compliment

4 physical barriers

Thick skin, cilia, mucous, secretions

4 Chemical barriers

Sebaceous secretions (acidic), sweat, HCl in stomach, digestive juices

3 functions of the immune system

Surveillance of the body
Recognition of foreign material
Destruction of entities deemed to be foreign

How do cells distinguish between self & non-self?

Cell's surface has markers (MHC) to help it distinguish

Define: Antigen

A portion of a pathogen recognized by the immune system

Define: RES & its function

Reticuloendothelial system
Connections tissue/organs together

What are 3 different types of granulocytes & their jobs?

Neutrophils - 1st to arrive during immune response (most common)
Eosinophils - Attach & destroy eukaryotic pathogens (yeast, protists)

What are 3 different types of Agranulocytes & their jobs?

Monocytes- processes foreign molecules & presents them to lymphocytes

Def: Erythrocytes


Def: Hematopoiesis & where does it occur

Production of blood cells
5 wk embryo: in yolk sack; 8 wk embryo: in liver; 4+month embryo: in the bone marrow

Where do B & T cells mature?

B: bone marrow
T: thymus

Define: plasma cells

Clones of B-cells that produce antibodies

What results in humoral & cell mediated immunity?

B cell: humoral
T cell: cell-mediated

The flow of lymph is:

Unidirectional, from the extremeties to the heart

4 parts of the lymphoid system

Lymph nodes, lymph fluid, spleen (filter), thymus gland

The thymus is ___ in childhood & ___ in adulthood


Why is fever good?

It fights infection by providing a hostile environment

Define: pyrogens

They set the hypothalamic "thermostat" to a higher setting to produce a fever

Define: Interferons

antimicrobial (antiviral) proteins. 3 major types: alpha, beta & gamma. Can inhibit the expression of cancer genes & have tumor-suppressor effects

Define: MHC

Major histocompatibility complex ("self" markers)

2 types of antigens

Mosaic: very complex w/numerous component parts that each elicit a separate lymphocyte response
Haptens: small foreign molecules that consist of only a determinant group. Too small to elicit an immune response on their own

Def: Epitope

The portion of the antigen molecule that the lymphocyte recognizes (lock/key system with antibody like an enzyme)

5 types of antibodies & their "highlights"

IGG: can cross placenta, most numerous
IGA: gotten from breast milk
IGM: 1st to be synthesized during an infection
IGD: on the surface of the B cells
IGE: rare (causes allergies) GAMDE

Structure of antibodies (immunoglobulin)

Y shaped, with variable regions at the tips of the Y and a constant region from the fork of the Y to the base

Natural acitve immunity

Direct exposure due to infection
We develop a specific response to a specific antigen

Natural passive immunity

Something we inherit: IGG in utero, IGA from breast milk

Artificial active immunity

Vaccination (someone injects an ANTIGEN)

Artificial passive immunity

Vaccination (someone injects an ANTIBODY)
**No immunological memory

Def: Specific immunity

Against 1 type of antigen

What cells contribute to specificity & long term memory?


What can be added to vaccines to get a better immune response?

Adjuvants (usually Vitamin E)

2 types of vaccines

Attenuated: highly weakened live cells

Def: Cytotoxic T (Tc) cells

Cells that can kill a specific target cell (virally infected cells, cancer cells, cells from other animals/humans)

Def: Natural Killer cells

Related to T cells but lack specificity. 1st killer cells to attack cancer cells & virus-infected cells

Def: Herd immunity

If most people are immune, the non-immune are less likely to acquire the pathogen

Def: Anti microbials

They kill bacteria, viruses, fungus & helminths
They can be natural or synthetic

Def: Antibiotics

Produced naturally by bacteria or fungi/mold

4 goals of drugs/medications

1. selectively toxic to pathogens 2. have few side effects
3. be soluble in water 4. remain in the body for a long time

5 classifications of drug mechanisms

Cell wall, cell membrane, RNA/DNA, protein synthesis, folic acid synthesis

3 Examples of cell wall disruptors

Penicillins, Cephalosporins, Isoniazid (TB)

2 examples of cell membrane dialators


2 examples of RNA/DNA synthesis blockers

Quinolones: inhibit gyrase
Rifampin: inhibit plymerase

5 examples of protein synthesis blockers

Erythromycin & Clindamycin (50S subunit)
Tetrycyclines & aminoglycosides (30S subunit)
Linezolid (both 30S & 50S)

1 example of folic acid synthesis blockers

Sulfonamides (sulfa drugs)

Def: Chemotheraputic drugs

Drugs that are chemically derived

Def: prophylactic drugs

Drugs to prevent infection

4 Examples of anti-fungal drugs

Ketoconazole, fluconazole, clotrimazole, miconazole

2 Examples of anti-helminthic drugs

Mebendazole & Thiabendazole

What are the challenges of creating drugs against fungi & helminths?

They are eukaryotes. Helminths are multicellular & larger. More similar to humans so more side effects/toxic the drugs need to be

Name ending for a broad-spectrum drugs


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