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79 terms

Micro test 3 for Ryan

Chapers 13, 14, 15, & 12
Define Infection
The colonizing of microbes
Define normal/resident microbiota
Lives in or on the body
Define transient microbiota
Non-pathogenic, passes through our system
What relationship does a pathagen have with a host?
4 ways normal microbiota is acquired
Birth canal, food, breathing, touch
Define opportunistic pathagens
Only affect the immune-compromised
Define True pathogens
Infect everyone (not just the weak or compromised)
4 different modes of microbial entry
Skin, mouth, respiratory, urinogenital
Most popular mode of microbial entry
Types of direct modes of transmission
Contact, vertical, biological
Types of indirect modes of transmission
From a fomite
Prenatal vs Perinatal
Pre: in utero
Peri: during or right after birth
4 diseases that can be passed from mother to child in utero
Syphilis, reubella, herpes, toroplasmosis
What function under the 2nd line of defense do the WBCs perform?
3 Physical methods of barrier
Skin, cilia in respiratory tract & mucous secretions
2 Chemical methods of barrier
Enzymes (mucinase, keratinase), sweat
5 stages of disease
1st exposure, incubation, prodromal (initial, no symptoms), height of infection, convalescent (recovery)
Sign vs Symptom
Sign: something seen or measurable
Symptom: patient's experience
Define: inflammation (5)
Rubor (redness), Calor (warmth), Tumor (swelling), Dolor (pain), Loss of function
Define: bacterimia & viremia
Bacteria & virus circulating in the blood
6 modes of exit for a pathogen
Dead skin cells, feces, blood, urinogenital tract, saliva, mucous
Biological vs mechanical vectors
Bio: biologically relevant to the life cycle of the pathogen
Mech: animal/insect carries the microbe from point A to B
Define: fomite
An inanimate object that harbors a pathogen
Define: Epidemiology
The science of how disease is spread
Define: Epidemic
A disease that spreads rapidly
Define: Pandemic
Define: Endemic
Confined to a small geographical area
Define: Leukopenia
a low blood cell count
Define: 1st & 2nd line of defense
1st: Physical, chemical & genetic
2nd: inflammation, interferon, phagocytosis & compliment
4 physical barriers
Thick skin, cilia, mucous, secretions
4 Chemical barriers
Sebaceous secretions (acidic), sweat, HCl in stomach, digestive juices
3 functions of the immune system
Surveillance of the body
Recognition of foreign material
Destruction of entities deemed to be foreign
How do cells distinguish between self & non-self?
Cell's surface has markers (MHC) to help it distinguish
Define: Antigen
A portion of a pathogen recognized by the immune system
Define: RES & its function
Reticuloendothelial system
Connections tissue/organs together
What are 3 different types of granulocytes & their jobs?
Neutrophils - 1st to arrive during immune response (most common)
Eosinophils - Attach & destroy eukaryotic pathogens (yeast, protists)
What are 3 different types of Agranulocytes & their jobs?
Monocytes- processes foreign molecules & presents them to lymphocytes
Def: Erythrocytes
Def: Hematopoiesis & where does it occur
Production of blood cells
5 wk embryo: in yolk sack; 8 wk embryo: in liver; 4+month embryo: in the bone marrow
Where do B & T cells mature?
B: bone marrow
T: thymus
Define: plasma cells
Clones of B-cells that produce antibodies
What results in humoral & cell mediated immunity?
B cell: humoral
T cell: cell-mediated
The flow of lymph is:
Unidirectional, from the extremeties to the heart
4 parts of the lymphoid system
Lymph nodes, lymph fluid, spleen (filter), thymus gland
The thymus is ___ in childhood & ___ in adulthood
Why is fever good?
It fights infection by providing a hostile environment
Define: pyrogens
They set the hypothalamic "thermostat" to a higher setting to produce a fever
Define: Interferons
antimicrobial (antiviral) proteins. 3 major types: alpha, beta & gamma. Can inhibit the expression of cancer genes & have tumor-suppressor effects
Define: MHC
Major histocompatibility complex ("self" markers)
2 types of antigens
Mosaic: very complex w/numerous component parts that each elicit a separate lymphocyte response
Haptens: small foreign molecules that consist of only a determinant group. Too small to elicit an immune response on their own
Def: Epitope
The portion of the antigen molecule that the lymphocyte recognizes (lock/key system with antibody like an enzyme)
5 types of antibodies & their "highlights"
IGG: can cross placenta, most numerous
IGA: gotten from breast milk
IGM: 1st to be synthesized during an infection
IGD: on the surface of the B cells
IGE: rare (causes allergies) GAMDE
Structure of antibodies (immunoglobulin)
Y shaped, with variable regions at the tips of the Y and a constant region from the fork of the Y to the base
Natural acitve immunity
Direct exposure due to infection
We develop a specific response to a specific antigen
Natural passive immunity
Something we inherit: IGG in utero, IGA from breast milk
Artificial active immunity
Vaccination (someone injects an ANTIGEN)
Artificial passive immunity
Vaccination (someone injects an ANTIBODY)
**No immunological memory
Def: Specific immunity
Against 1 type of antigen
What cells contribute to specificity & long term memory?
What can be added to vaccines to get a better immune response?
Adjuvants (usually Vitamin E)
2 types of vaccines
Attenuated: highly weakened live cells
Def: Cytotoxic T (Tc) cells
Cells that can kill a specific target cell (virally infected cells, cancer cells, cells from other animals/humans)
Def: Natural Killer cells
Related to T cells but lack specificity. 1st killer cells to attack cancer cells & virus-infected cells
Def: Herd immunity
If most people are immune, the non-immune are less likely to acquire the pathogen
Def: Anti microbials
They kill bacteria, viruses, fungus & helminths
They can be natural or synthetic
Def: Antibiotics
Produced naturally by bacteria or fungi/mold
4 goals of drugs/medications
1. selectively toxic to pathogens 2. have few side effects
3. be soluble in water 4. remain in the body for a long time
5 classifications of drug mechanisms
Cell wall, cell membrane, RNA/DNA, protein synthesis, folic acid synthesis
3 Examples of cell wall disruptors
Penicillins, Cephalosporins, Isoniazid (TB)
2 examples of cell membrane dialators
2 examples of RNA/DNA synthesis blockers
Quinolones: inhibit gyrase
Rifampin: inhibit plymerase
5 examples of protein synthesis blockers
Erythromycin & Clindamycin (50S subunit)
Tetrycyclines & aminoglycosides (30S subunit)
Linezolid (both 30S & 50S)
1 example of folic acid synthesis blockers
Sulfonamides (sulfa drugs)
Def: Chemotheraputic drugs
Drugs that are chemically derived
Def: prophylactic drugs
Drugs to prevent infection
4 Examples of anti-fungal drugs
Ketoconazole, fluconazole, clotrimazole, miconazole
2 Examples of anti-helminthic drugs
Mebendazole & Thiabendazole
What are the challenges of creating drugs against fungi & helminths?
They are eukaryotes. Helminths are multicellular & larger. More similar to humans so more side effects/toxic the drugs need to be
Name ending for a broad-spectrum drugs