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4 diseases that can be passed from mother to child in utero
Syphilis, reubella, herpes, toroplasmosis
5 stages of disease
1st exposure, incubation, prodromal (initial, no symptoms), height of infection, convalescent (recovery)
Define: inflammation (5)
Rubor (redness), Calor (warmth), Tumor (swelling), Dolor (pain), Loss of function
Biological vs mechanical vectors
Bio: biologically relevant to the life cycle of the pathogen
Mech: animal/insect carries the microbe from point A to B
Define: 1st & 2nd line of defense
1st: Physical, chemical & genetic
2nd: inflammation, interferon, phagocytosis & compliment
3 functions of the immune system
Surveillance of the body
Recognition of foreign material
Destruction of entities deemed to be foreign
How do cells distinguish between self & non-self?
Cell's surface has markers (MHC) to help it distinguish
What are 3 different types of granulocytes & their jobs?
Neutrophils - 1st to arrive during immune response (most common)
Eosinophils - Attach & destroy eukaryotic pathogens (yeast, protists)
What are 3 different types of Agranulocytes & their jobs?
Monocytes- processes foreign molecules & presents them to lymphocytes
Def: Hematopoiesis & where does it occur
Production of blood cells
5 wk embryo: in yolk sack; 8 wk embryo: in liver; 4+month embryo: in the bone marrow
antimicrobial (antiviral) proteins. 3 major types: alpha, beta & gamma. Can inhibit the expression of cancer genes & have tumor-suppressor effects
2 types of antigens
Mosaic: very complex w/numerous component parts that each elicit a separate lymphocyte response
Haptens: small foreign molecules that consist of only a determinant group. Too small to elicit an immune response on their own
The portion of the antigen molecule that the lymphocyte recognizes (lock/key system with antibody like an enzyme)
5 types of antibodies & their "highlights"
IGG: can cross placenta, most numerous
IGA: gotten from breast milk
IGM: 1st to be synthesized during an infection
IGD: on the surface of the B cells
IGE: rare (causes allergies) GAMDE
Structure of antibodies (immunoglobulin)
Y shaped, with variable regions at the tips of the Y and a constant region from the fork of the Y to the base
Natural acitve immunity
Direct exposure due to infection
We develop a specific response to a specific antigen
Def: Cytotoxic T (Tc) cells
Cells that can kill a specific target cell (virally infected cells, cancer cells, cells from other animals/humans)
Def: Natural Killer cells
Related to T cells but lack specificity. 1st killer cells to attack cancer cells & virus-infected cells
Def: Herd immunity
If most people are immune, the non-immune are less likely to acquire the pathogen
Def: Anti microbials
They kill bacteria, viruses, fungus & helminths
They can be natural or synthetic
4 goals of drugs/medications
1. selectively toxic to pathogens 2. have few side effects
3. be soluble in water 4. remain in the body for a long time
5 classifications of drug mechanisms
Cell wall, cell membrane, RNA/DNA, protein synthesis, folic acid synthesis
5 examples of protein synthesis blockers
Erythromycin & Clindamycin (50S subunit)
Tetrycyclines & aminoglycosides (30S subunit)
Linezolid (both 30S & 50S)
What are the challenges of creating drugs against fungi & helminths?
They are eukaryotes. Helminths are multicellular & larger. More similar to humans so more side effects/toxic the drugs need to be
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