AP World History Postclassical Period
Postclassical Period 600--1450 CE
Terms in this set (98)
Most revered religious shrine in pre-Islamic Arabia; located in Mecca; focus of obligatory annual truce among bedouin tribes; later incorporated as important shrine in Islam.
The spread of the Islamic faith across the Middle East, southwestern Asia, and northern Africa.
The breaking of images; a religious controvery of the 8th century; Byzantine emperor attempted, but failed, to surpress the veneration
a style of architecture developed in Italy and western Europe between the Roman and the Gothic styles after 1000 AD
the organization of people at different ranks in an administrative body
Five Pillars of Faith
Belief of Islam: 1. There is no God but Allah and Muhammed is his messenger 2. Pray 5 times a day 3. Give charity to the poor 4. Fast during the month of Ramadan 5. Hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca
a strip of dry grasslands on the southern border of the Sahara; also known as "the shore of the desert"
Body of Civil Law
Justinian's codification of Roman law; made Roman law a coherent basis for political and economic life.
An ancient Inca device for recording information, consisting of variously colored threads knotted in different ways.
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
the movement of the Bantu peoples southward throughout Africa, spreading their language and culture, from around 500 b.c. to around A.D 1000
The common name for a major outbreak of plague that spread across Asia, North Africa, and Europe in the mid-fourteenth century, carrying off vast numbers of persons.
a system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials
the fourth caliph of Islam who is considered to be the first caliph by Shiites
Companion of 1st muslim leader after Muhammad. Regarded by Sunni's as the 1st caliph and rightful succesor. The Shi'ah regard him as a traitor of Muhammad. Known as best interpretter of dreams following Muhammad's death.
Third caliph and member of Umayyad clan; murdered by mutinous warriors returning from Egypt; death set off civil war in Islam between followers of Ali and the Umayyad clan
A branch of Islam whose members acknowledge the first four caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad
The branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendents as the rightful successors of Muhammad
a landlocked republic in southern central Africa
Muslim name for the one and only God
A Russian term for "Caesar" or ruler; the authoritarian rulers of the Russian empire before its collapse in the 1917 revolution
King of Franks; conquered Gaul; earned support of Gaul and Church of Rome by converting; Ruled lands in Frankish custom but kept Roman legacy; converted ruling area to Christianity
lesser lords who pledged their service and loyalty to a greater lord -- in a military capacity
Author of Yes And No; university scholar who applied logic to problems of theology; demonstrated logical contradictions within established doctrine.
(1200-1521) 1300, they settled in the valley of Mexico. Grew corn. Engaged in frequent warfare to conquer others of the region. Worshipped many gods (polytheistic). Believed the sun god needed human blood to continue his journeys across the sky. Practiced human sacrifices and those sacrificed were captured warriors from other tribes and those who volunteered for the honor.
Ruler of Inca society from 1438 to 1471; launched a series of military campaigns that gave Incas control of the region from Cuzco to the shores of Lake Titicaca
a Japanese warrior who was a member of the feudal military aristocracy; in Japanese, means "to serve"
Powerful Japanese family in 11th and 12th centuries; competed with the Minamota family; defeated after the Gempei Wars.
Mongolian emperor of China and grandson of Genghis Khan who completed his grandfather's conquest of China; he established the Yuan dynasty and built a great capital on the site of modern Beijing where he received Marco Polo (1216-1294)
Persian invaders of the 10th century; captured Baghdad and acted as sultans through Abbasid figureheads
nomadic Turks from Asia who conquered Baghdad in 1055 and allowed the caliph to remain only as a religious leader. they governed strictly
(1137-1193) Powerful Muslim ruler during Third Crusade, defeated Christians at Hattin took Jerusalem in 1187 but was defeated by Richard Coeur de Lion in 1191 (1137-1193)
a mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, and a simple life
A Mongolian general and emperor of the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries, known for his military leadership and great cruelty. He conquered vast portions of northern China and southwestern Asia.
Under the Islamic system of military slavery, Turkic military slaves who formed an important part of the armed forces of the Abbasid Caliphate of the ninth and tenth centuries; eventually founded their own state, ruling Egypt and Syria (1250-1517)
The title for a ruler in the Mali Empire of western Africa
one of a seafaring Scandinavian people who raided the coasts of northern and western Europe from the eighth through the tenth century.
the Frankish (Carolingian) commander for the battle of Tours. He defeated the Muslims in the Battle of Tours, allowing Christianity to survive throughout the Dark Ages. He in a way started Feudalism by giving land to his knights that served for him.
William the Conqueror
duke of Normandy who led the Norman invasion of England and became the first Norman to be King of England; he defeated Harold II at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 and introduced many Norman customs into England (1027-1087)
(Roman Catholic Church) Italian theologian and Doctor of the Church who is remembered for his attempt to reconcile faith and reason in a comprehensive theology; presented philosophical proofs of the existence of God (1225-1274)
Clans in Aztec society, later expanded to include residential groups that distributed land and provided labor and warriors.
Spanish explorer and conquistador who led the conquest of Aztec Mexico in 1519-1521 for Spain.
Military leaders of the bakufu in Japan during its feudal era and the actual powers behind the emperor until the Meiji restoration.
Defeated the rival Taira family in Gempei Wars and established military government (bakufu) in 12th century Japan
White Lotus Society
Secret religious society dedicated to overthrow of Yuan dynasty in China; typical of peasant resistance to Mongol rule
the founder of Mali empire. He crushed his enemies and won control of the gold trade routes
Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan.
Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as codifying Roman law (new law code)
Cyril and Methodius
brothers who were Slavic educators, inventors of the Slavic alphabet, Christian preachers, the first translators of religious texts from Greek into Slavic
Ruler of Russian kingdom of Kiev from 980 to 1015; converted kingdom to Christianity
Roman Emperor (4th century A.D.) who promoted tolerance to all religions in the Roman Empire and legalized Christianity
Warlike people who migrated from Eastern Europe into territory controlled by Germanic tribes, forcing them to move into areas controlled by Rome
a person who lived on and farmed a lords land in feudal times
King of the Franks (r. 768-814); emperor (r. 800-814). Through a series of military conquests he established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. Illiterate, though started an intellectual revival.
Pope Urban II
Leader of the Roman Catholic Church who asked European Christians to take up arms against Muslims, starting the Crusades
Ferdinand and Isabella
This was the king and queen of Spain who took over the Catholic Spain and started the Spanish Inquisition; they also granted Columbus money to go to America
A Native American people who built a notable civilization in western South America in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The center of their empire was in present-day Peru. Francisco Pizarro of Spain conquered the empire.
Japanese aristocratic family in mid-9th century; exercised exceptional influence over imperial affairs; aided in decline of imperial power
a Japanese feudal lord who commanded a private army of samurai
Indianized rivals of the Vietnamese; moved into Mekong River delta region at time of Vietnamese drive to the south
the family that ruled the Franks in Gaul from 751 to 987 in this Dynasty. This began when Pepin was declared king. They lost power after the Treaty of Verdun.
one of two great schools of Buddhist doctrine emphasizing a common search for universal salvation especially through faith alone; the dominant religion of China, Tibet and Japan
a Buddhist sect that emphasizes enlightenment through meditation and stresses simplicity and discipline; also called Chan Buddhism
term that describes the resurgence of Confucianism and the influence of Confucian scholars during the T'ang Dynasty; a unification of Daoist or Buddhist metaphysics with Confucian pragmatism
Eastern Orthodox Christianity
Eastern branch of Christianity that evolved following the division of the Roman Empire and the subsequent development of the Byzantine Empire in the east and the medieval European society in the west. The church recognized the primacy of the patriarch of Constantinople.
A branch of Christianity that developed in the western Roman Empire and that recognized the Pope as its supreme head
A Christian sect found in Asia; tended to support Islamic invasions of this area in preference to Byzantine rule; cut off from Europe by Muslim invasions
a doctrine within Islam. Commonly translated as "Holy War," it represents either a personal or collective struggle on the part of Muslims to live up the religious standards set by the Qu'ran.
1096 Christian Europe aim to reclaim Jerusalem and aid the Byzantines; 1st success and the rest a failure; weakens the Byzantines; opens up trade
Wars that followed Muhammad's death in 632; resulted in defeat of rival prophets and some of larger clans; restored unity of Islam
Hundred Years War
Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families; 1337-1453, in which England lost all its possessions in France except Calais
Waged for five years from 1180, on Honshu between Taira and Minamoto families; resulted in destruction of Taira
Arab sailing vessels with triangular or lateen sails; strongly influenced European ship design
(Islam) the way of life prescribed as normative for Muslims on the basis of the teachings and practices of Muhammad and interpretations of the Koran
The 1,100-mile (1,700-kilometer) waterway linking the Yellow and the Yangzi Rivers. It was begun in the Han period and completed during the Sui Empire. (p. 277)
Triangle-shaped sails whose design allowed ships to sail against the wind. These sails were perfected by Arab traders; are attached to the masts by long booms or yard arms which extend diagonally high across both the fore and aft portions of the ship
A written number system created during the Gupta golden age in India, then adopted by the Islamic Empire before spreading further. Used throughout western civilization today.
Paper money that was first used in China in the 9th century AD. Originally it was called "fei-chien" because it could blow out of your hand. To start with it was used by merchants as a note of exchange, but the government soon caught onto the idea and used it for forwarding tax payments. Real paper money backed by deposited money started in the 10th century.
An alphabet for the writing of Slavic languages, devised in the ninth century A.D. by Saints Cyril and Methodius; derived from Greek alphabet
Byzantine weapon consisting of mixture of chemicals (petroleum, quicklime, sulfur) that ignited when exposed to water; utilized to drive back Arab fleets that attacked Constantinople
Ritual suicide or disembowelment in Japan; commonly known in West as hara-kiri; demonstrated courage and a means to restore family honor.
dynasty that overthrew the Umayyad to rule the Muslim caliphate from 750 to 1258; for 150 years they maintained the unity of the caliphate and Islamic civilization and culture flourished
Clan of Quraysh that dominated politics and commercial economy of Mecca; clan later able to establish dynasty as rulers of Islam
kingdoms that developed during the height of Ghana's power, from the Senegal river to the Niger River. The states were ruled by a patriarch or council of elders. There was a core territorial area and then surrounding subordinate ones. The rulers of sudanic states were considered sacred and separate from their subjects. when islam spread to this area, only Royals practiced it and it was not spread to the people.
First known kingdom in sub-Saharan West Africa between the sixth and thirteenth centuries C.E. Also the modern West African country once known as the Gold Coast; based on gold and salt trade
The short dynasty between the Han and the Tang; built the Grand Canal, strengthened the government, and introduced Buddhism to China
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806.
Empire created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa from the thirteenth to fifteenth century. It was famous for its role in the trans-Saharan gold trade.
successor state to Mali; dominated middle reaches of Niger valley; formed as independent kingdom under a Berber dynasty; capital at Gao; reached imperial status under Sunni Ali
In forest of niger delta;rulers called oba (also descents of Ife), major trade center, had sculptures, ivory furs, died out because of slave trade; on the western coast of Africa
Northern/ Southern Song
Dynasty after the Tang Dynasty; preceded the Yuan dynasty; emperors or huangdi were supreme rulers; 960--1279 CE
A people of this name is mentioned as early as the records of the Tang Empire, living as nomads in northern Eurasia. After 1206 they established an enormous empire under Genghis Khan, linking western and eastern Eurasia.
based on agriculture; formed on the lower Congo River by late 15th century; capital at Mbanza Kongo; ruled by hereditary monarchy
a country of southern Africa. Various Bantu peoples migrated into the area during the first millennium, displacing the earlier San inhabitants
was a trading center and a powerful ancient kingdom in northern present-day Ethiopia; developed unique branch of Christianity, Coptic Christianity, because they were isolated from the rest of the Christian world
considered the golden age of Chinese civilization and ruled for nearly 300 years; China grew under the dynasty to include much of eastern Asia, as well as large parts of Central Asia
(330-1453) The eastern half of the Roman Empire, which survived after the fall of the Western Empire at the end of the 5th century C.E. Its capital was Constantinople, named after the Emperor Constantine; fell to the Ottoman Turks
belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group