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Young adults are increasingly


The focus of helath care for middle adults is becoming

Health promotion and reduction of disease

Chronic disease most often begins to appear during

Middle adulthood

Biologic processes associated with aging may cause

Increased ratio of adipose and muscle tissue

Prescription and over-the-counter drugs can affect nutritional status because they

may affect appetite or absorption of nutrients

Each decade, basal energy needs decresae

1% to 2%

If an older adult is losing weight, his or caloric intake is

Less then his or her energy needs

Adults tend to have the longest life span if they

are slightly overweight

The percentage of energy intake that should be supplied as carbohydrate for older adults is

45% to 65%

It is important that the older adult's diet include adequate carbohydrates to

Support normal brain function

Two minerals that are often low in diets of the elderly are

Calcium and iron

An older adult is most likely to have inadequate nutrient intake if he or she lives


The Older Americans Act Title III provides

Congregate and home-delivered meal

Congregate meals are most often serviced at a

Senior citizens center

Factors that contribute to malnutrition in older adults include

Loss of teeth or poorly fitting dentures

Dehydration is more common in older adults than in younger adults because

the thirst mechanism diminishes

Factors that influence the nutrition needs of young adults include

physical activity

The average young adult male requires more energy than the average young adult female due to a

Larger size body

Examples of foods high in nutrients that help prevent osteoporosis are

Yorgurt and canned salmon

Older adults need more vitamin D than young adults because they

are less efficient at making their own

At birth, the reflexes an infant has are

rooting, sucking and swallowing

Foods for infants should be prepared without added

Sugar and salt

A child's growth may be evaluated using

growth charts

The main energy source for children is


An example of a food that provides building material for tissue growth is


Compared with adults, infants and young children have more body fluid

outside the cell

An important function of calcium for the growing child is

bone and tooth development

Breastfed infants should start to receive foods high in iron by age

6 mounts

Hypervitaminosis of vitamins A and D is most likely to occur because

overuse of vitamin supplement

The most suitable first solid food for infants is

infant rice ceral

The ideal first food for newborn infants is

Breast milk

The approximate age for adding solid food to an infant's diet is

6 months

Babies should not be put to sleep with a bottle of formula because

this could lead to early tooth decay

Cow's mild is not recommended for infants during the early months because

it has a high solute load and may cause gestrointestinal bleeding

Young children should be offered

Small portions so they can ask for more if they are hungry

Food intake may decrease after the first year of life and caloric need is not as great because

The growth rate slows down

The final growth spurt of childhood occurs

with the onset of puberty

Which of the following is a valid reason for breastfeeding rather than bottle-feeding?

breastfeeding helps pretect infants against infection

Finger foods can be given to infants between ages

6 to 8 months

Parents who use natural foods should be advised to

Avoid giving honey to a child younger than 1 year old

It is important that a pregnant women's energy needs be met because of the need to

spare protein

Daily kilocalorie needs during pregnancy exceed normal requirements by approximately

300 kcals

Increased protein is necessary in pregnant for

growing maternal tissues

Three minerals that should be increased significantly during pregnancy are

Calcium, iron, and iodine

The recommended daily iron intake during pregnancy is

27 mg

Adequate folate in the periconceptional period helps to prevent

neural tube defects

The B-complex vitamins are required in greater amounts during pregnancy because

Metabolic activities increase

It is important to increase daily intake of vitamin C during pregnancy because it

is an important element in tissue growth

It is recommended that a woman drink 3 to 4 cups of milk a day during pregnancy because it is a good source of

vitamin D

A condition of severe, prolonged, and persistent vomiting is called


Constipation during pregnancy is often caused by

Placental hormones that cause intestinal muscles to relax

An acceptable weight gain during pregnancy for a normal weight woman is

25 to 35 lb

A pregnant adolescent is at risk because

she is still in a growth stage of development

A very overweight pregnant woman over age 30 is at high risk for

Gestational diabetes

During pregnancy, women should be encouraged not to

drink alcoholic beverages

The most common cause of anemia during pregnancy is

Iron deficiency...

Women with megaloblastic anemia usually have diets low in

green leafy vegetables

The finding of glycosuria during a routine laboratory test may suggest that the woman has

gestational diabetes

Three important factors that support adequate lactation are

diet, fluids, and rst and relaxation

Nutrition counselors should encourage pregnant teenagers to

eat foods from all basic five food groups

The hormone that conserves body water is

antidiuretic hormone

The two minerals that occur in the extracellular fluid and regulate water balance are

sodium and chloride

A basic mechanism for maintaining body hydration is


The hormone responsible for promoting conservation of sodium in the kidney is


Metabolic water refers to water

formed from oxidation of nutrients in the cell

The kidneys must excrete water in the urine because

water prevides the vehicle for excretion of water waste products

Plasma proteins, glucose, electrolytes, and sodium are examples of solutes

found in body fluids that influence movement of water

An example of a substance that can pass through a capillary membrane is


An acid has a pH

lower then 7.0

An iron that possesses a positive charge is a


The organic molecule responsible for creating colloidal osmotic pressure is


An example of an electrolye is


Ways in which water and solutes move across membranes include

diffusion and filtration

Functions of water in the body include

temperature control

Cations primarily responsible for controlling body water distribution are

sodium and potassium

Body water requirements are increased by

diarrhea and vomiting

The predominant regulator(s) of circulating bloodvolume is/are

plasma proteins

The action of antidiurectic hormone (ADH) on the kidney will cause

water retention

Plasma proteins maintain colloidal osmotic pressure because

they are large molecules

The best treatment for diarrhea in children is to

give oral fluids containing sodium and potassium

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