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section 4 nutrition

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NUTRITION SECTION 4
NUTRITION SECTION 4
Young adults are increasingly
Independent
The focus of helath care for middle adults is becoming
Health promotion and reduction of disease
Chronic disease most often begins to appear during
Middle adulthood
Biologic processes associated with aging may cause
Increased ratio of adipose and muscle tissue
Prescription and over-the-counter drugs can affect nutritional status because they
may affect appetite or absorption of nutrients
Each decade, basal energy needs decresae
1% to 2%
If an older adult is losing weight, his or caloric intake is
Less then his or her energy needs
Adults tend to have the longest life span if they
are slightly overweight
The percentage of energy intake that should be supplied as carbohydrate for older adults is
45% to 65%
It is important that the older adult's diet include adequate carbohydrates to
Support normal brain function
Two minerals that are often low in diets of the elderly are
Calcium and iron
An older adult is most likely to have inadequate nutrient intake if he or she lives
Alone
The Older Americans Act Title III provides
Congregate and home-delivered meal
Congregate meals are most often serviced at a
Senior citizens center
Factors that contribute to malnutrition in older adults include
Loss of teeth or poorly fitting dentures
Dehydration is more common in older adults than in younger adults because
the thirst mechanism diminishes
Factors that influence the nutrition needs of young adults include
physical activity
The average young adult male requires more energy than the average young adult female due to a
Larger size body
Examples of foods high in nutrients that help prevent osteoporosis are
Yorgurt and canned salmon
Older adults need more vitamin D than young adults because they
are less efficient at making their own
At birth, the reflexes an infant has are
rooting, sucking and swallowing
Foods for infants should be prepared without added
Sugar and salt
A child's growth may be evaluated using
growth charts
The main energy source for children is
Carbohydrates
An example of a food that provides building material for tissue growth is
cheese
Compared with adults, infants and young children have more body fluid
outside the cell
An important function of calcium for the growing child is
bone and tooth development
Breastfed infants should start to receive foods high in iron by age
6 mounts
Hypervitaminosis of vitamins A and D is most likely to occur because
overuse of vitamin supplement
The most suitable first solid food for infants is
infant rice ceral
The ideal first food for newborn infants is
Breast milk
The approximate age for adding solid food to an infant's diet is
6 months
Babies should not be put to sleep with a bottle of formula because
this could lead to early tooth decay
Cow's mild is not recommended for infants during the early months because
it has a high solute load and may cause gestrointestinal bleeding
Young children should be offered
Small portions so they can ask for more if they are hungry
Food intake may decrease after the first year of life and caloric need is not as great because
The growth rate slows down
The final growth spurt of childhood occurs
with the onset of puberty
Which of the following is a valid reason for breastfeeding rather than bottle-feeding?
breastfeeding helps pretect infants against infection
Finger foods can be given to infants between ages
6 to 8 months
Parents who use natural foods should be advised to
Avoid giving honey to a child younger than 1 year old
It is important that a pregnant women's energy needs be met because of the need to
spare protein
Daily kilocalorie needs during pregnancy exceed normal requirements by approximately
300 kcals
Increased protein is necessary in pregnant for
growing maternal tissues
Three minerals that should be increased significantly during pregnancy are
Calcium, iron, and iodine
The recommended daily iron intake during pregnancy is
27 mg
Adequate folate in the periconceptional period helps to prevent
neural tube defects
The B-complex vitamins are required in greater amounts during pregnancy because
Metabolic activities increase
It is important to increase daily intake of vitamin C during pregnancy because it
is an important element in tissue growth
It is recommended that a woman drink 3 to 4 cups of milk a day during pregnancy because it is a good source of
vitamin D
A condition of severe, prolonged, and persistent vomiting is called
Hyperemesis
Constipation during pregnancy is often caused by
Placental hormones that cause intestinal muscles to relax
An acceptable weight gain during pregnancy for a normal weight woman is
25 to 35 lb
A pregnant adolescent is at risk because
she is still in a growth stage of development
A very overweight pregnant woman over age 30 is at high risk for
Gestational diabetes
During pregnancy, women should be encouraged not to
drink alcoholic beverages
The most common cause of anemia during pregnancy is
Iron deficiency...
Women with megaloblastic anemia usually have diets low in
green leafy vegetables
The finding of glycosuria during a routine laboratory test may suggest that the woman has
gestational diabetes
Three important factors that support adequate lactation are
diet, fluids, and rst and relaxation
Nutrition counselors should encourage pregnant teenagers to
eat foods from all basic five food groups
The hormone that conserves body water is
antidiuretic hormone
The two minerals that occur in the extracellular fluid and regulate water balance are
sodium and chloride
A basic mechanism for maintaining body hydration is
thirst
The hormone responsible for promoting conservation of sodium in the kidney is
aldosterone
Metabolic water refers to water
formed from oxidation of nutrients in the cell
The kidneys must excrete water in the urine because
water prevides the vehicle for excretion of water waste products
Plasma proteins, glucose, electrolytes, and sodium are examples of solutes
found in body fluids that influence movement of water
An example of a substance that can pass through a capillary membrane is
glucose
An acid has a pH
lower then 7.0
An iron that possesses a positive charge is a
cation
The organic molecule responsible for creating colloidal osmotic pressure is
protein
An example of an electrolye is
potassium
Ways in which water and solutes move across membranes include
diffusion and filtration
Functions of water in the body include
temperature control
Cations primarily responsible for controlling body water distribution are
sodium and potassium
Body water requirements are increased by
diarrhea and vomiting
The predominant regulator(s) of circulating bloodvolume is/are
plasma proteins
The action of antidiurectic hormone (ADH) on the kidney will cause
water retention
Plasma proteins maintain colloidal osmotic pressure because
they are large molecules
The best treatment for diarrhea in children is to
give oral fluids containing sodium and potassium