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Medical Terminology Basic Ch 5

The Gastrointestinal System
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Digestive system or Alimentary cal
Is a contineous tube beginning with the mouth and ending at the anus.
Liver, gallbladder, and the pancreas
The accessory organs of the Gastrointestinal system.
Stomatitis
Is the inflammation of the mouth.
Stomatalgia or Stomatodynia
Is the pain in the mouth.
Stomatorraphy
Is suture of the mouth.
stomat/o
Is a combining form of the mouth.
-itis
Is a suffix meaning inflammation.
-algia or -dynia
Is a suffix meaning pain.
-rraphy
Is a suffix meaning suture.
-pathy
Is a suffix used to indicate a disease state.
Stomatopathy
Refers to any disease of the mouth.
-plasty
Is a suffix meaning surgical repair (plastic surgery).
Stomatoplasty
Is a medical term meaning surgical repair of the mouth.
palat/o
Is a combining form meaning palate, which is the roof of the mouth.
Palatoplasty
Is a medical term meaning surgical repair of the mouth.
Ginigivectomy
Is a surgical removal of the gum tissue.
ginigiv/o
Is a combining form meaning gum.
-ectomy
Is a suffix meaning excision.
sial
Is a word root meaning salivary glands.
sial/o
Is the combining form meaning salivary glands.
Sialolith
Means salivary stone.
lith
Is a root word meaning stone
-lith
Is a suffix meaning stone.
Dysphagia
Is difficulty in swallowing or eating.
dys-
Is a prefix meaning difficult.
-phagia
Is a suffix meaning swallowing or eating.
dent/o or odont/o
Is a combining word meaning teeth.
-ist
Is a suffix referring to one who specializes in.
Malocclusion
Means poorly aligned teeth.
Occlusion
Used in dentistry, means alignment.
Odontalgia
Is a term for toothache.
Odontitis
Refers to the inflammation of the teeth.
Prosthodontics
Refers to adding teeth or replacing some or all of the teeth.
prosth/o
Is a combining form meaning teeth.
Oligodontia
Is the condition of having a fewer than the normal number of teeth.
olig/o
Is a combining form meaning teeth.
gloss/o or lingu/o
Is a combining form meaning tongue.
Glossalgia or Glossodynia
Means pain in the tongue.
Glossitis
Means the inflammation of the tongue.
sub- / -hypo
Is a prefix and suffix meaning beneath, below or under.
-oma
Is a prefix meaning tumor.
-tomy
Is a suffix meaning incision in.
Glossorrhapy
Means suture of the tongue.
Glossoma
Means tumor of the tongue.
Glossotomy
Means incision in the tongue.
Glossopathy
Is a medical term meaning disease of the tongue.
-plegia
Is a suffix meaning paralysis.
Glossoplegia
Medical term meaning paralysis of the tongue.
Sublingual or Hypoglossal
Means under the tongue.
-osis
Is a suffix meaning condition of.
Glossosis
Medical term referring to any condition of the tongue.
Glossopathy
Medical term meaning to any disease of the tongue.
-scope
Is a suffix meaning an instrument used to examine an object.
Glossoscope
Medical term meaning an instrument for examining the tongue.
cheil/o
Is a combining form meaning lips.
Cheilosis
Medical term meaning any condition of the lips.
Cheilopathy
Medical term meaning any disease of the lips.
Cheilitis
Medical term meaning inflammation of the lips.
Cheilotomy
Medical term meaning incision of the lips.
Cheiloplasty
Medical term meaning plastic repair of the lips.
Cheilostomatoplasty
Meaning plastic surgery of the lips and mouth.
Buccal
Means pertaining to the cheek.
bucca
Is word root meaning cheek.
Pharyng/o
Is a combining form meaning throat.
Pharyngocele
Is herniation of the throat.
Pharynx
Means throat.
-cele
Is a suffix meaning herniation.
Pharyngalgia or Pharyngodynia
Medical term meaning pain in the throat.
Pharyngoplegia
Medical term meaning paralysis of the pharyngeal or throat muscles.
Pharyngitis
Medical term meaning inflammation of the throat.
Pharyngectomy
Medical term meaning excision of the throat.
uvula
The pharynx is separated from the mouth by the soft palate, which has a V-shaped extension called:
Esophagus
Is the passage extending from the pharynx (throat) to the stomach.
esophag/o
Is a combining form meaning esophagus.
Esophagostenosis
Is narrowing of the esophagus.
-stenosis
Is a suffix meaning the condition of narrowing.
Esophagodynia or Esophagalia
Medical terms meaning pain in the esophagus.
Esophagitis
Medical term meaning inflammation of the esophagus
Esophagocele
Medical term meaning herniation of the esophagus.
gastr
Is the root word meaning stomach.
gastr/o
Is the combining form meaning stomach.
Gastritis
Medical term meaning inflammation of the stomach.
Gastroenteritis
Is the inflammation of the stomach and small intestines.
enter/o
Is the combining form meaning small intestine.
gastroenter/o
Is the combining form meaning stomach and small intestines.
Gastroenterocolitis
Is inflammation of the stomach, small intestine, and colon.
Gastroscope
Medical term meaning instrument used for visual examination of the stomach
duoden/o
Is a combining form meaning duodenum.
Gastroduedenitis
Refers to inflammation of the stomach and duodenum.
Gastrectomy
Medical term meaning excision of part or all of the stomach.
Gastrejejunostomy
Is a surgical procedure to make an opening between the stomach and jejunum.
jejun/o
Is a combining form meaning jejunum.
stoma
Is a opening or mouth.
-stomy
Is a suffix referring to a surgical procedure to create a opening or mouth.
Gastrostomy
Is the surgical creation of an opening through the abdominal wall of into the stomach.
Gastrodynia or Gastralgia
Medical terms meaning pain in the stomach.
Gastroma
Is a tumor in the stomach.
Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.
Three parts of the small intestine.
ile/o
Is the combining form meaning ileum.
Duodenitis
Medical term meaning inflammation of the duodenum.
Ilectomy
Medical term meaning excision of part of the ileum.
jejunotomy
Medical term meaning incision into the jejunum.
Enteritis
Medical term meaning inflammation of the small intestine.
Duodenohepatic
Is a compound word meaning liver and duodenum or affecting the liver and duodenum.
hepat/o
Is a combining form meaning liver.
Jejunorrhaphy
Medical term meaning suture of the jejunum.
Ileorectal
Means pertaining to the ileum and the rectum.
rect/o
Is a combining form meaning rectum.
Ileostomy
Medical term meaning creation of an artificial opening into the ileum.
Enterocystocele
Is a hernia of the intestine and bladder.
cyst/o
Is a combining form meaning bladder.
Enteroptosis
Is a falling, or downward displacement, of intestines.
-ptosis
Is a suffix meaning prolapse, dropping, or falling.
cec/o
Is the combining form meaning cecum.
cecum
Is the first part of the large intestine.
Ileocecal
Means pertaining to the ileum and cecum.
colon
Is the part of the large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum.
Sigmoid colon
The curve part of the descending colon is called:
Appendix
Is a small structure near the juncture of the ileum and cecum.
colon/o and col/o
Is the combining form meaning large intestine.
Colonitis or Colitis
Inflammation of the colon.
Colonopathy
refers to any disease of the colon.
-rrhagia
Is a suffix meaning hemorrhage.
Colonorrhagia
Is hemorrhage from the colon.
Colostomy
Is the creation of an artificial opening in the large intestine.
Cecoileostomy
Is the creation of an opening between the cecum and ileum.
cecoile/o
Is a combining from meaning cecum and ileum.
Sigmoidectomy
Is a surgical excision or removal of the sigmoid colon.
sigmoid/o
Is a combining form meaning sigmoid colon.
Ileocolitis
Is the inflammation of the ileum and colon.
Anorectal
Means pertaining to the opening of the rectum.
Anus
Is a word root referring to the opening to the outside from the rectum.
an/o
Is a combining form meaning anus.
rect/o
Is a combining from meaning rectum.
Proctology
Is a branch of medicine concerned with disorder of the rectum and anus.
proct/o
Is a combining form referring with disorder of the rectum and anus.
Proctologist
Medical term meaning a physician who specializes in proctology.
Sigmoidoscopy
Is the viewing of the sigmoid colon with an instrument.
Diverticulum
Is a pouch in the muscle wall of the colon.
diverticul/o
Is a combining form meaning diverticulum or diverticula.
Diverticulectomy
Medical term meaning excision of the diverticulum.
Diverticulitis
Medical term meaning inflammation of the diverticulum.
Proctoplasty
Is a surgical repair of the rectum.
Protoscope
Medical term meaning an instrument used for visual examination of the rectum.
Protoscopy
Medical term meaning visual examination of the rectum with a instrument.
-scopy
Is a suffix referring to the use of an instrument to view.
Proctocele
Is a hernia of the rectum.
Proctoptosis
Medical term meaning prolapse of the rectum.
Anoplasty
Medical term meaning surgical repair of the anus.
Hemorrhoidectomy
Is a surgical removal of hemorrhoids.
Hemorrhoid
Is a word root meaning an enlarged varicose vein in the mucous membrane just outside the rectum.
Hemorrhoidectomy
Is surgical removal of hemorrhoids.
Appendectomy
Is excision or removal of the appendix.
append
Is a root word meaning appendix.
append/o
Is a combining form meaning appendix.
Proctodynia
Medical term meaning pain in the rectum.
Colopexy
Is a surgical intervention to correct or ''fix'' the colon in place.
-pexy
Is a suffix meaning fixation.
pancreat/o
Is a combining form meaning pancreas.
Pancreatitis
Medical term meaning inflammation of the pancreas.
Pancreatectomy
Medical term meaning removal of all part of the pancreas.
Pancreatic
Medical term meaning pertaining to the pancreas.
Pancreatopathy
Is disease of the pancreas.
-megaly
Is a suffix meaning enlarge.
-malacia
Is a suffix meaning softening.
Hepatomegaly
Medical term meaning enlargement of the liver.
Hepatomalacia
Medical term meaning softening of the liver.
Hepatotomy
Is a surgical incision of the liver.
Hepatitis
Medical term meaning inflammation of the liver.
Hepatoma
Is tumor of the liver.
cirrh/o
Is a combining form meaning yellow.
Cirrhosis
Medical term meaning abnormal yellow condition.
Hyperbilirubinemia
Excessive bilirubin in the blood as a result of liver dysfunction is called:
hyper-
Is a prefix meaning excessive or over.
-emia
Is a suffix meaning blood.
Cholecyst
Means gallbladder.
chol/e
Is a combining form meaning gall / bile.
-cyst
Is a suffix meaning fluid-filled sac or bladder.
Cholecyst/o
Is a combining form meaning gallbladder.
Cholecystitis
Medical term meaning inflammation of the gallbladder.
Cholelthiisasis
Is the condition of having gallstones.
Cholecystectomy
Medical term meaning removal of the gallbladder.
Hypercholia
Is excessive secretion of bile.
hyper-
Is a prefix meaning over or increased amount.
Cholesterosis
Is an abnormal deposit of cholesterol in the gallbladder.
sterol
Is a root word for a special fat chemical.
cholester/o
Is combining form meaning cholesterol.
Cholemia
Is blood in the bile or gall.
bil/i
Is a combining form meaning pertaining to the biliary system.
Biliary system
Is responsible for the metabolism and physiology of bile substances manufactured by the gallbladder.
Cholangioma
Is a tumor of the vile vessel.
ang/i
Is a combining form meaning vessel.
Choledocholithotomy
Is incision into the bile duct for removal of gallstones
Choledoch/o
Is a combining form meaning bile ducts.
Peritoneum
Is the lining of the abdominal cavity.
peritone/o
Is a combining form meaning peritoneum.
Peritoneal
Means pertaining to the peritoneum.
Abdominal
Medical term meaning pertaining to the abdomen.
Abdominocentecis
Is a surgical puncture of the abdomen.
abdomin/o
Is a combining form meaning abdomen.
-centesis
Is a suffix meaning puncture.
brady-
Is a prefix meaning slow.
-pepsia
Is a suffix meaning digestion.
Bradypepsia
Medical term meaning slow digestion.
dys-
Is prefix meaning difficult.
Dyspepsia
Medical term meaning difficult digestion.
-phagia
Is a suffix meaning swallowing.
Dysphagia
Medical term meaning difficult in swallowing.
a-
Is a prefix meaning no or none.
Apepsia
Medical term meaning without digestion.
Aphagia
Medical term meaning inability to swallow.
Postprandial
Means after meals.
post-
Is a prefix meaning after.
-prandial
Is a suffix meaning pertaining to a meal.
ac
before meals
Ba
Barium
BE
Barium enema
bid
Twice a day
CT SCAN
computerized tomography(scan)
EGD
esophagogastroduodenoscopy
GI
gastrointestinal
GTT
glucose tolerance test
HAV
hepatitis A virus
IBS
irritable bowel syndrome
IVC
intravenouscholangiography
LES
lower esophageal sphincter
LFT
liver function test
N&V
nausea and vomiting
NG
nasogastric
NPO (npo)
nothing by mouth
pc
after meals (post cibum)
PPBS
postprandial blood sugar
SBF
small bowel follow-through
S & D
stomach and duodenum
UGI series
upper gastrointestinal series