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262 terms

Biology exam 1

STUDY
PLAY
The work of scientist usually begin with?
careful observations
Information gathered from observing a plant grow 3 cm over a two week period is called?
data
Based on your observations, you suggest that the presence of water could be accelerate the growth of bread mold. This is?
A hypothosis
A hypothesis
may be disproved by a single experiment
During a controlled experiment, a scientist isolates and tests?
a single variable
what is the benefit of publishing in the journal?
The quality of the report will meet high scientific standards.
what does a reviewer do during peer-review?
check for mistakes and bias.
A well-tested explanationthat explains a lot of observations is
a theory
which of the following is a question that can be answered by science?
How does DNA influence a persons health?
How do you determind the independent variable in an experiment?
It is the one thing that the experimenter changes.
How do you identify the dependent variable in an experiment?
It is the measurable result of the independent variable.
which of the following is NOT a characteristic of all living things?
ability to move
which of the following characteristics of living things best expains why some north american birds fly south for the winter?
Living things respond to their environment.
cell specialization allows cells to
perform different functions.
The process by which organisms keep everything inside their bodies within certain limits is called?
homeostasis
the basic unit of length in the metric system is the
meter
how many meters are in 2.4 km?
2,400 m
Using a universal system of measurement is MOST important during which part of scientific methology?
collecting data
Scientist will never know why dinosaurs became extinct. Therefore, scientist should
continue to learn as much as they can about dinosaur extinction.
Suppose that a scientist proposes a hypothesis about how a newly discovered virus affects humans. Other virus researchers would likely
design new experiments to test the proposed hypothesis.
How do scientific theories compare to hypotheses?
Theories unify a broad range of observations and hypotheses
Which of the following characteristics of living things best explains why dogs pant or sweat through their paws when hot?
Living things maintian internal balance
Would a scientist who studies evolution also have to learn about other branches of biology? why or why not?
Yes; the different branches of biology are interrelated.
The basic unit of mass in the metric system is the
gram
Which of the following should a scientist do to make it easier for others to replicate his experiment?
Use the meteric system when communicating procedures and results.
How many meters are in 98.6 mm?
.0986 m
The three particles that make up atoms are
protons, nuetrons, and electrons
what are found in the space surrounding the nucleus of an atom?
electrons
which of the following makes up a molecule of water?
two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen
A covalent bond is formed as the result of
sharing electrons
what type of electron is available to form bonds?
valence
what type of ion forms when an atom loses electrons?
positive
which property of water causes the curved surface?
adhesion
water molecules are polar with the
oxygen side being slightly negative and the hydrogen being slightly positive.
The most acidic rain fall in New York state has a pH of
4.22
A substance with a pH of 6 is called
an acid.
why is carbon so special compared to other elements?
carbon can bond to one another and form a lot of different structures.
what kinds of atoms are bonded to carbon atoms in the molecule above?
hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
How many covalent bonds can a corban atom form?
4
Amino acid is to protien as
simple sugar is to strach
which of the following is NOT a monomer?
A protein
which of the following is NOT a function of proteins?
store and transmits genetic information.
which statement is true about macromolecules?
Protiens are made up of amino acids.
In chemical reactions, atoms are
rearranged
when hydrogen and oxygen combine to form water, water is
a product
Enzymes affect the reactions in living cells by changing the
speed of the reaction.
The energy needed to get a reaction started is the
activation energy
The branch of biology dealing with interactions amoung organisms and between organisms and their environment is called
ecology
which of the following descripitions about the organization of an ecosystem is correct?
species make up populations, which make up communities
The simplest grouping of more than one kind of one organism in the biosphere is
a community
the lowest level of environmental complexity that includes living and noniving factors is the
ecosystem
Plants are
primary producers
how do most primary producers make their own food?
by using light energy to make carbohydrates.
which of the following organism does NOT require sunlight to live?
chemosynthesis bacteria
What is an ecological model of the relationships that form a netwrok of complex interactions amoung organisms in a community from producers to decomoposers?
Food web
what animals eat both producers and comsumers?
omnivores
what is the term for each step in the transfer of energy and matter with in a food web?
trophic level
A bird stalks, kills, and eats the insect. which pair of ecological terms describes the bird?
carnivore, consumer
Of the remaining energy, some is used for the organisms life process, and the rest is
eliminated as heat.
A word that means the same thing as consumer is?
heterortroph
Each of the following is an abiotic factor in the envirnoment EXCEPT
plant life
Which is a biotic factor that affects the size of a population in a specific ecosystem?
number and kinds of predators in the ecosystem.
what is at the base of all ecological pyramids?
producers
Matter can recycle throught the biosphere because
biological systems do not use up matter but they tranform it.
the repeated movement of water between Earth's surface and the atmosphere is called?
the water cycle
what is happenig to the water at D?
water is seeping into the ground to become ground water.
Carbon cycles throughout the biosphere is in all the following processes EXCEPT
transpiration
Nitrogen fixation is carried out primarily by
bacteria
which of the following has a direct role in the nitrogen cycle?
all of the above
organisms need nutrients through living systems are different because
energy flows in one direction, and nutrients recycle
what can happen after a lake receives a large input of a limiting nutrient?
an algal bloom occurs
phosphorus is very important for living things because living ogranisms need phosphorus for
DNA and RNA
which part of the water cycle is a biological process?
transpiration
Organisms need nutrients inorder to
carry out essential life functions
biogeochemical cycling ensures that
nutrients will be circulated throughout the biosphere
why cant the producers in some ecosystems make an unlimited supply of organic material?
One or more nutrients are in short supply.
The average conditions of the atmoshpere in a particular area are reffered to as the area's?
climate
How does an area's weather differ from the area's climate?
Weather is the areas day to day conditions and climate is the areas average conditions.
the greenhouse effect is
a natural phenomenon that maintains earths temperature range.
Earth has three main climate zones because of the differences in latitude and, thus,
distribution of sunlight.
Which of the following is a biological aspect of an organisms niche?
the way it gets its food.
An organisms niche is
the range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way it obtains what it needs to surviv and reproduce
No two species can occupy the same habitat at the same time
because of the competitive exclusion principle.
an interaction in which an animal feeds on plants is called?
herbivory
A wolf pack hunts, kills, and feeds on a moose. In this interaction, the wolves are?
predators
A symbotic relationship in which both species benefit is?
mutualism
A symbotic relationship in which one organism is harmed and the other one benefits is?
parasitism
how is parasitism different from commensalism?
one organism is harmed in parasitism and no organisms are harmed in commensalism.
primary succession would most likely occur after
a lava flow.
what is one difference between primary and secondary succession?
secondary succession begins on soil and primary succession begins on newly exposed surfaces.
which of the following occurs during the ecological succession of an ecosystem?
living organisms modify their environment a little at a time.
An example of a human caused disturbance is?
forest clearing
which biome is characterized by very low temperatures, little precipitation, and permafrost?
tundra
which two biomes have the least precipitation
tundra and desert.
which animal would be found in the biome that has cold to moderate winter, warm summers, and fertile soils, and is home to a variety of vegetation, such as coniferous trees, broadleaf decidous trees, flowering, shrubs, and ferns?
whitetailed deer
one of the main characteristics of a population is its?
geographic range
which of the following tells you population density?
the number of bacteria per sqaure millimeter
the movement of organisms into a range is called?
immigration
which are two ways a population can decrease in size?
decrease birthrate and emigration
If a population grows larger than the carrying capacity of the environment, the
death rate may rise.
which would be least likely to be affected by a density dependent limiting factor?
a small, scattered population
which of the following is a density independent limiting factor?
earthquake
which of the following is a density independent limiting factor?
the eruption of a volcano
demography is the scientific study of?
human populations
demographic transition is change from high birth rates and high death rates to?
low birth rates and low death rates.
countries in the first stage of demographic transition have?
a high death rate and a high birth rate
the human population experienced exponential growth after?
the Industrial revolution began
The various growth phases through which most populations go are represented on?
a logistic growth curve
As resources in a population become less available, the popuation
declines rapidly
Sea otters live in the ocean. which of the following is NOT likely to be a limiting factor on the sea otter population?
drought
Which will reduce competition within a species population?
fewer individuals.
Each of the following is a density dependent limiting factor EXCEPT
temperature
A disease resulting in the deaths of one third of a dense popultion of bats in a cave would be a?
density dependent factor
what is one negative consequence of the Industrial revolution?
environmental harm from the burning of fossil fuels.
An example of a renewable resource is?
trees
Thw 1930s Dust Bowl in the Great Plains was caused by?
poor farming practices
when farming, overgrazing, climate change, and/or seasonal drought change farmland that cannot support plant life, it is called?
desertification
An example of sustainable resource use is the use of predators and parasites to?
control pest insects
DDT was used to?
kill insects
One property that makes DDT hazardous over the long run is that DDT is?
subject to biological magnification
As DDT moves up the trophic levels in food chains or food webs its concentration
increases
The gray brown haze often found over large cities is called?
smog
Raising cattle and farming rice contribute to air pollution by?
releasing the greenhouse gas methane into the atmoshpere.
biodiversity is valuable partly because it
contributes to medicine and agriculture.
Introduced species can threathen biodiversity because they can
crowd out native species
All of the following are threats to biodiversity EXCEPT
habitat preservation
An ecological hot spot is an area where
many habitats and species are at high risk of extinction.
One measure of the human impact on the biosphere is called
ecological footprint
The first step to using ecology to solve envirnomental problems is to
identify the problem
One of the greatest threats today to biodiversity is
altered habitats
Corn planted in a field that has been previously planted with legumes and then plowed under is likely to be
more productive because bacteria living on the roots of legumes fix nitrogen in the soil.
All the interconnected feeding relationships in an ecosystem make up a food
web
the total amount of living tissues within a given trophic level is called the
biomass
what are the three kinds of ecological pyramids?
energy, biomass, and numbers
which is a factor that could interrupt the progress of succession?
another natural disturbance
How are phase 1 and phase 2 of logistic growth similar?
A population is increasing, moving toward its carrying capacity during both phases.
water lilies do not grow in desert sand because water availabilty to these plants in a desert is
a limiting factor
A major factor that negaticely affects biodiversity is
habitat fragmentation
During a long period when there is no rainfall, a mountain lion may temperarily leave its usual hunting terrirtory to drink from a farm pond. This behavior is due to?
the change in an abiotic factor in its environment
which is an example of how biotic abiotic factors interact?
Tree roots split apart rocks in the ground
The greenhouse effect is
a natural phenomenon that maintains Earths temperature range
The tendency for warm air to rise and cool air to sink results in
global wind pattern
A tropical rain forest may not return to its original climax community after which of the following disturbances?
clearing and farming
which factor might not contribute to an exponential growth rate in a given population?
reduced resources
As resource in a population become less available, the population
reaches carrying capacity
In a logistic growth curve, exponential growth is the phase in which the population
grows quickly
All of the following are threats to biodiversity EXCEPT
habitat preservation
Protecting an entire ecosystem ensures that
interactions amoung many species will be preserved
when calculating a populations ecological footprint, one has to take into account the
resources needed to clean up the populations waste
biodiversity is valuable partly because it
contributes to medicine and agriculture
who used a compund microscope to see chamber within cork and named them "cells"?
Robert Hooke
The work of schleiden and schwann can be summarized by saying that
all plants and animals are made of cells.
which of the following is NOT a principle of the cell theory?
Very few cells are able to reproduce.
Electron microscopes can reveal details
1000 times smaller than those visible in light miscroscopes.
which type of microscope can produce three dimensional images of a cells surface?
scanning electron microscope
looking at a cell under a microscope you note that it is a prokaryote. how do you know?
the cell lacks a nucleus
which of the following enclose their DNA in a nucleus?
eukaryotes
Prokaryotes usually have
genetic material
which of the following organisms are prokaryotes?
bacteria
which of the following is a function of the nucleus?
stores DNA
which of the following is NOT found in the nucleus?
mitocondria
which of the following statements about the nucleus is NOT true?
The nucleus is the site of protein assembly
which organelle breaks down organelles that are no longer useful?
lysosomes
which of the following is a function of the cytoskeleton?
helps a cell keep its shape
which structures are involved in cell movement?
microtubules and microfilaments
which structure make proteins using coded instructions that come from the nucleus?
ribosome
which sequence correctly traces the path of a protein in the cell?
ribosome, ER, Golgi apparatus
which organelle converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use?
mitocondrion
which organelles are involved in energy conversion?
mitocondria and chloroplast
which organelle would you expect to find in plants cells but not in animal cells?
chloroplast
The primary function of the cell wall is to
support and protect the cell.
Unlike the cell membrane the cell wall is
a rigid structure
you will NOT find a cell wall in which of these kinds of organisms?
animals
which of the following is a function of the cell membrane?
regulates the movement of materials into and out of the cell
the cell membrane contains channels and pumps that helps move materials from one side to the other. what are these channels and pumps made of?
proteins
diffusion occurs because
molecules constantly move and collide with each other.
During diffusion, when the concentration of molecules on both sides of a membrane is the same, the molecules will
continue to move across the membrane in both directions.
the diffusion of water across a selectively premeable membrane is called
osmosis
An animal cell that is surrounded by fresh water will burst because the osmotic pressure causes
water to move into the cell
which means of particle transport requires input of energy from the cell?
active transport
which of the collowing is an example of an organ?
heart
A group of similar cells that performs a particular function is called?
a tissue
An organ system is a group of organs that
work together to perform a specific function
which list represents the levels of organization in a multicellular organism from the simplest level to the most complex level?
cell, tissue, organ, organ system
which term descibes the relatively constant internal physical conditions of an organism?
homeostasis
T or F? "the bird has brown spots on its wings" is an example of INFERENCE.
False; observation
T or F? For a hypothesis to have value, it must be TESTABLE
True
T or F? A scientist working in the early 1900s came up with a hypothesis. Over the next 100 years, other scientist test the hypothesis and found out that it could make predictions about numerous new situations time and time again. This hypothesis can now reightfully be considered a RESULT.
False; theory
An experiment in which only one variable is changed is a(_________) experiment.
controlled
Charles Darwins ideas about change over time have been well tested by other scientist and is now considered to be a (________)
Theory
T or F? Most plants and animals reporduce ASEXUALLY.
False; sexually
T or F? Biologists study life on all levels from molecules to THE ENTIRE PLANET.
True
T or F? The meteric system is based on multiples of 100.
False; 10
The combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes is called (________________)
metabolism
A mass of 3000g is equal to (_____) kg
3
How would you determind whether something is living ot nonliving? (list of 8 things)
1. Made up of cells
2. reproduce
3. Have DNA and RNA
4. Growth and development
5. Use of energy and materials
6. Responde to the envirnoment
7. Homeostasis
8. Evolve
T or F? "the insect has 6 legs" is an example of INFERENCE.
False; observation
T or F? The smallest units in living things that are considered to be alive are ORGANISMS.
false; cells
A mass of 600mg is equal to (_______) kg
.0006
Of the three subatomic praticles, (______) are most involved in froming chemical bonds
protons
A chemical bond formed by the transfer of electrons is a (_____) bond
ionic
A water is polar because there is an uneven distribution of electrons between the oxygen and the (_________) atoms.
hydrogen
The stomach produces an (____) that lowers the pH and helps digest food.
acid
T or F? The molecules of life are all CARBON-based.
True
T or F? Carbon-carbon bonds can be single, double, or triple IONIC bonds.
False; covalent
T or F? LIPIDS are important parts of biological membranes and waterproof coverings.
True
Complex carbohydrates are to monosaccharides as polymers are to (_______)
monomers
List the 6 most common elements found in living things:
Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, Sulfure
explain how monomers become polymers and how polymers becom monomers.
monomers become polymers by dehydration synthesis, which is taking out the water to join the monomers to become polymers. Polymers become monomers by hydrolysis, which adds water that breaks down the polymers into monomers.
T or F? The basic unit of matter is the MOLECULE.
false; atom
T or F? ADHESION is responsible for the surface of the water in a graduated cylinder that is slightly curved at the sides.
True
T or F? A substance with a pH of 7 is a BASIC SOLUTION.
False; nuetral
T or F? The molecules of life are al CARBON based.
True
T or F? LIPIDS are important parts of biological membranes and waterproof covering.
True
T or F? The substances that are present when a chemical reaction begins are the PRODUCTS.
False; reactions
T or F? Proteins that speed up the rate of reactions in living things are SUBSTANCES.
False; enzymes
To ro F? An ecologist who is studying a group of ecosystems that have similar climates and are home to similar organisms is studying a COMMUNITY.
False;Biome
T or F? Animals that feed on plants are called PRODUCERS.
False; consumers
T or F? Only 10 percent of the ENERGY in a trophic level is available to organisms at the next trophic level.
True
Explain how energy moves into, moves through, and moves out of an ecosystem.
Energy starts out at the sun then the autotroph consumes the energy by photosynthesis. Heterotrophs then consumes the energy from the autotroph by eating and digestion. The energy that is passed on only 10 percent of that energy is consumed the rest is used for growth or given off as heat.
T or F? Clouds are formed in the sky when water EVAPORATES.
False; condenses
T or F? scientists classify the nitrogen, carbon. phosphorus, and water cycles as BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES.
True
T or F? The burning of fossil fuels and photosynthesis are part of the PHOSPHORUS cycle.
False; carbon
T or F? Aquatic ecosystems can recieve a large input of a LIMITING NUTRIENT from the runoff from heavily fertilized fields.
True
living organisms require nitrogen to make nitrogen containing compunds, such as (_________) and nucleic acids.
proteins
Human activities such as mining and the production and application of fertilizer are part of the (________) cycle.
phosphorus
Compare the movement of energy in the biosphere whith the movenment of metter through the biosphere.
Energy moves throught the biosphere in one direction and some of the energy is lost as it moves through the trophic levels. Matter moves in all different direction and is never either created or destroyed just tranformed.
Describe the roles of bacteria in the nitrogen cycle.
we depend on bacteia in soil to convert nitrogen gas into nitrogen coompunds so it can be used and absorbed by plants by the process of nitrogen fixation. Then when there is too much nitrogen compounds in the soil, bacteria converts nitrates into nitrogen gas and releases it into the atmosphere by the process of denitrifacation.
T or F? An ecologist who is studying a group of ecosystems that have similar climates and are home to simiar organisms is studying a COMMUNITY.
false; biome
T or F? OXYGEN is important for ecosystems because it is used by plants during photosynthesis.
False; carbon dioxide
T or F? Carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor traps LIGHT energy.
false; heat
some orchids grow high on trees so that they can get enough light for photosynthesis. The trees are unaffected by the presences of the orchids. The relationship between the orchids and the trees is an example of (________________)
commensalism
Regrowth of grasses, ferns, wildflowers, and saplings after a forest fire is an example of (________) succesion
secondary
A whale fall community begins when the body of a dead whale falls to the bottom of the ocean. Expain why plants do not participate in the succesion of a whale fall community as they do in land ecosytem succesion.
plants do not participate because the whale falls to the bottom of the ocean where there is no light so plants don't grow.
T or F? If the death rate of a population is greater than the birth rate, the population DECREASES.
True
T or F? when you graph a populations exponential growth over time you will have an S-SHAPED graphh.
false; J shaped
T or F? The EXPONENTIAL model of popuation growth accounts for theinfluence of carrying compacity.
false; logistic
T or F? Denstity DEPENDENT limiting factors affect all populations whether the population size is two or two hundred.
false; independent
T or F? The size of the human population tends to INCREASE with time.
True
emigration can cause a popuation to (______) in size.
increase.
In an entire wolf population dies, the moose population on which it preys will grow to the enviroments (_________)
carrying compacity.
How can a demographer predict how a population will change in the future?
The demographer creates an age structure graph and also looks at the limiting factors the population has.
Compare and contrast the graph of exponential growth to the graph of logistic growth.
Exponential growth is shown on a graph as J shaped because exponential growth means that the population has unlimited resources and so the population will keep increasing. Logistic growth is presented on a graph as a S-shaped because logisic growth means the population has limited resources which means it will have a carrying compacity.
T or F? Ecologists studying the thinning of the Ozone layer determind that the main cause of the problem is GLOBAL WARMING
false; CFC
T or F? CARBON DIOXIDE is helpful when it is high in the atmosphere but is harmful to human health when it is close enough to the ground for people to breath.
False; ozone
T or F? BIODIVERSITY is important to humankind because we are part of it and are dependent up on it for our own survival.
True
T or F? Acid rain, dissolved carbon dioxide in ocean, and the thinning of bird eggshells due to DDT are all examples of POLLUTION threatening biodiversity
True
T or F? Ecological footprints can be caculated for individual people or for POPULATIONS.
true
A location that has 170 species of birds likely has greater(______________) than a location that has 100 species of birds.
species diversity
T or F? ecologists can make PREDICTIONS using ecoloigcal models.
True
T or F? the growth of cities and suburbs can result in HABITAT FRAGMENTATION.
True
T or F? The cell theory states that all THINGS are made up of cells.
false; Living things
T or F? A SCANNING ELECTRON microscope allows light to pass through a specimen and focuses it using two lenses to form an image.
false; light
T or F? the assembly of ribosomes begins in a small dense structure called the CHROMATIN.
false; nucleolus
T or F? FLAGELLA made up of microtubules help organize cell division.
false; centriole
T or F? Cilia and flagellla are made of protien filaments called ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
false; microtubules
T or F? Ribosomes that synthesize proteins are found on the SMOOTH endoplasmic reticulum.
False; Rough
T or F? Plant calls have chloroplast BUT NOT a mitocondria
false; and
T or F? A red blood cell placed in water will SHRINK.
false, burst
T or F? Moving materials from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration requires ACTIVE transport.
True
T or F? a cell in a MULTICELLULAR organism must be able to carry out all the fucnctions neessary for life in order for the organism to survive.
false; Unicellular
T or F? there is a division of labor amoung the cells of MULTICELLULAR organisms.
true