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Nervous tissue cells; Supporting cells of PNS

satellite cells
schwann cells

Nervous tissue cells; Supporting cells of CNS

astrocyte; ependymal cells; microglia; oligodendrocytes

Nervous tissue cells; from myelin Sheaths

oligondendrocytes; Schwann Cells

Nervous tissue cells; regulate chemical enviornment of neurons

astrocytes; satellite cells

Nervous tissue cells; Generate and trasmit nerve impulses


Nervous tissue cells; line cavities of brain and spinal cord; from and move CSF

ependymal cells

Nervous tissue cells; Phagocytes that destroy debis, dead tissue and pathogens


Neurons; Structural classification

--Multipolar neuron - many processes associated with teh cell body
--Bipolar Neruon - has two cell processes
--unipolar neuron - one short process extends from the cell body and divides
--Bipolar Neuron -- Neuron is rare and is the sendory neuron in the eye and nose

Neurons; Functional classification

Motor Neruon; Interneuron - functional neuron types that are structurally mulitpolar neurons
--Motor Neruon; interneuron - neuron types whose cell bodyies are in teh spinal cord CNS
--Sensory Neuron - Neuron type that is structurally either a unipolar neuron or bipolar neuron whose cell body is found in the PNS
--Interneuron - functional neuron type most prevalent in the CNS

White matter

contains myelinated fibers

Gray matter

contains neuron cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers

Myelinated Fibers

Nerve fibers that are white in color and conduct nerve impulses faster

Unmyelinated fibers

Nerve fibers that are gray in color

nodes of Ranvier

Gaps in myelin sheath

Nervous Impulse Conduction

Receiving > sending nerve impluse
1 dendrite
2 cell body
3 axon hillock
4 trigger zone
5 axon
6 axon terminal
7 synapse
8 second neuron of effector
9 demyelinated neurons of the brain and spinal cord
neurons of the brain

Nervous System; communication within

graded potential starts in a sensory receptor in the skin
> graded potential triggers an action potential in a sensory neuron
> synapse in teh thalmus creates a graded potential followed by and action potential in a secondary interneuron which reaches the crerebral cortex
> primary interneuron forms an action potential and crosses to the oppposite side of hte brain
> at a synapse , a reesynapitic sensory neuron stimulates the postsymaptic interneuron to form a graded potential in its cell body
> a stimulul from the brain causes a graded potential and then a action potential for form in a upper motor neruon - which crosses back to the orginal side of the body
> in another synapse the neurotransmitter creates a graded potential which triggers an action potential in the lower motor neuron
> the lower motor neuron forms a neuromuscular synapse with the hand muscles which causes the muscles to contract as he writes the letter


Arachnoid mater - middle meninx; web like

Dura mater - tough, outer meninx

Subdural space - space filled with adipose tissue

pia mater - thin mininx intimate with spinal cord

subarachnoid space - contains cereb rospinal fluid

denticulate ligament - extension of pia mater attaching to dura

Spinal Cord structures

Gray matter
posterior median sulcus
gray commissure
posterior dorsal root
conus medullaris
anterior ventral root
posterior dorsal root ganglion
cauda equina
white matter
anterior gray horn
central canal
cervical enlargement
anterior median fissure
filum terminale
lumbar enlargement

gray matter

contain neuron cell bodies and unmyelinated processes

posterior median sulcus

shallow groove on dorsal side

gray commissure

connects right and left halves of gray matter in spinal cord

posterior dorsal root

snesory branch of spinal nerve entering spinal cord

conus medullaris

tapered end of spinal cord

anterior ventral root

motor branch of spinal nerve exiting spinal cord

posterior dorsal root ganglion

contains sensory neuron cell bodies

cauda equina

collection of spinal nerves that arise fro inferior end of spinal cord

white matter

contains myelinated axons

anterior gray horn

contains somatic motor neuron cell bodies

central canal

space in center of spinal cord that contains cerebrospinal fluid

cervical enlargement

bulge in spinal cord containg cell bodies of motor neurons suppplying upper limb

anterior median fissure

wide, deep groove on ventral side

filum terminale

extension of pia mater that attaches spinal cord to coccyx

lumbar enlargement

bulge in spinal cord at T9-T12

Polio virus

anterior ventral horn destroyed


out break following shingles and remains dorment;
posterior doral root ganglion

Neurons; present in spinal cord

multipolar neurons

Anterior ventral root

all three fiber types

Posterior dorsal root

class A and B fiber types

Spinal taps

lowest portion of spinal cord reaches L2. spinal taps are not done above this level to avoid damaging teh spinal cord with the needle

Sensory Impulses; enter spinal cord to brain

spinal nerve > posterior dorsal root ganglion > posterior dorsal root > posterior gray horn > white column

Motor Impulses; descend from brain and leave spinal cord

white column > anterior ventral gray horn > anterior ventral root > spinal nerve

connective tissue coverings



covers unmyelinated or meylinated axons


covers fascicles


covers nerves

Rami of spinal nerves

posterior dorsal rami
rami communicantes
anterior ventral rami

posterior dorsal rami

branch that serves the deep muscles and the skin of the back

rami communicantes

brances that belong to the sympathetic nervous system

anterior ventral rami

branch that forms nerves serving the limbs

Lumbar Nerve Plexus


Sacral Nerve Plexus

common fibular

Cervical Nerve Plexus


Brachial Nerve Plexus


Sciatic nerve

tibial nerve
common fibular peroneal nerve

supplies posterior thigh and most of the leg and foot

spinal nerves

31 pairs

Coccygeal nerves

1 pair

Anterior ventral ramus; severed

motor and sensory loss

Thoracic nerves

12 pairs

Femoral nerve

suppplies anterior thigh

Sacral nerves

5 pair

Lumbar nerves

5 pair

Posterior dorsal ramus; severed

functional losss is motor and sensory

Cervical Nerves

8 pair


supplies deltoid and teres minor muscles

Radial Nerve

supplies triceps brachii muscles and extensor digitorum lingus


supplies biceps brachii muscles


supplies diaphragm

Ulna nerve

supplies most hand muscles

Median Nerve

supplies flexor carpi radialis

Median Nerve; damage

inability to pornate forearm and loss of finger movement in digits 1-3

Raidal Nerve; damage

inability to extend wrist and fingers

Sciatic Nerve; damage

gluteal injection to avoid pain and injury caused by inadvertently striking a major nerve

greenstick fracture of tibia

Unlar Nerve; damage

affects medial part of hand, medial part of digit 3 and all of digits 4 & 5 tingles digits 3,4 5,

C 8; damage

does not have movement in most muscles of hand and digits 4-5

Obturator Nerve; damage

trouble adduction lower limbs

Common Fibular peroneal nerve; damage

dorsiflexing foot trouble

Axillary Nerve; pain

sunburn on skin over deltoid muscles

Ulnar Nerve; pain

splinter in digit 5 of hand

Reflex Arc

sensory receptor
sensory neuron
integrating center
motor neuron

Monosynaptic reflex arc

2 neurons

intergrating center

1 synapse

polysynaptic reflex arc

3 or more neurons
3 synapses containing two interneurons in the integrating center

Motor neuron

sensory neuron synapse with monosynaptic reflex arc


sensory neruon synapse with in a polysynaptic reflex arc

Reflexs; tests

Achilles; tibial nerve

Biceps; musculocutaneous nerve
Patellar; femoral nerve
Plantar Flexion reflex; tibial nerve
Triceps; radial nerve

Babinski's sign

NOT normal in adults


rapid, involuntary responsse ot stimulus

Somatic reflex

involve somatosendory receptors cutaneous receptors and porpricceptors

Visceral Reflex

involve interoceptors that detect changes in the internal environment

Cranial Reflex

involve crainial nerves

Spinal Reflexs

involve spinal nerves

Ipsilateral Reflex Arc

sensory receptors and effectors are on same side of body

Contralateral Reflex arc

sensory receptors and effectors are on opposites sides of body

Reciprocal innervation

stimulation of agonist muscles with the simultaneous inhibition of antagonish muscles

Flexor and crossed extensor reflex

walking along beach barefoot step on sharp object with right foot. Immediatly flex right leg and balance yourself by extneding left leg.......neurons
Motor neuron causing flexion > sensory neuron > interneuron synapsing with motor neurons > interneuron sending impulses up and down the spinal cord > motor neuron causing extension

Reflex Activity; modification

polysynaptic integrating centers have input form higher brain centers that modify the reflex

medulla oblongata

contains vital centers that regulate heartbeat, breathing , blood presssure, vomiting; coughing


smoothes and coordinates skilled skeletal muscle movement; also posture and balance or equilbrium

pineal gland

secretes melatonin that controls the sleep wake cycles


controls and integrates the autonomic nervous system; reuulates hormones; emotional behavior; tempature; eating and drinking behavior

cerebral cortex

interprets sensory input; controls skilled skeletal muscle movements
is involved in emotional and intellectural porcesses


helps control breathing
conducts impulses to and from teh crebellum, midbrain, and medulla


relays all sensory input ot the cerebral cortex
invloved in skeletal muscle actions and memeory processing

Corpora Quadrigemina

coordinates visual and auditory reflexes

basal nuclei

coordinates gross automatic mucles movements
also involved i with limbic system

corpusl callosum

white fiber tracts communication between hemispheres

Choroid Plexus

sites of CSF formation
special tiny ccapillaries located in the walls of lateral ventricles, third and forth ventricles

Ependymal Cells

cells that line th ventricles have cilia that move CSF

Septum Pellucidum

two lateral ventricles are seperated by a thin membrane called the ___________

CSF cerebral spinal fluid

made at rate of 20 mL/ hr

Superior sagittal sinus

venous sinus that overlies the brain superiorly

Brain injury

--loss of vision = effect of blow to back of head
--loss of equilibrium = effect of alcohol
--cessation of breathing = effect of head injury (ie...from diving in a pool) that forces the dens into this area
--loss of pain localization in the shoulder = effect of a stroke

Cranial Nerves

Abducens VI
Accessory XI
Facial VII
Glossopharyngeal IX
Hypoglossal XII41

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