113 terms

Exam 5

Nervous tissue cells; Supporting cells of PNS
satellite cells
schwann cells
Nervous tissue cells; Supporting cells of CNS
astrocyte; ependymal cells; microglia; oligodendrocytes
Nervous tissue cells; from myelin Sheaths
oligondendrocytes; Schwann Cells
Nervous tissue cells; regulate chemical enviornment of neurons
astrocytes; satellite cells
Nervous tissue cells; Generate and trasmit nerve impulses
Nervous tissue cells; line cavities of brain and spinal cord; from and move CSF
ependymal cells
Nervous tissue cells; Phagocytes that destroy debis, dead tissue and pathogens
Neurons; Structural classification
--Multipolar neuron - many processes associated with teh cell body
--Bipolar Neruon - has two cell processes
--unipolar neuron - one short process extends from the cell body and divides
--Bipolar Neuron -- Neuron is rare and is the sendory neuron in the eye and nose
Neurons; Functional classification
Motor Neruon; Interneuron - functional neuron types that are structurally mulitpolar neurons
--Motor Neruon; interneuron - neuron types whose cell bodyies are in teh spinal cord CNS
--Sensory Neuron - Neuron type that is structurally either a unipolar neuron or bipolar neuron whose cell body is found in the PNS
--Interneuron - functional neuron type most prevalent in the CNS
White matter
contains myelinated fibers
Gray matter
contains neuron cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers
Myelinated Fibers
Nerve fibers that are white in color and conduct nerve impulses faster
Unmyelinated fibers
Nerve fibers that are gray in color
nodes of Ranvier
Gaps in myelin sheath
Nervous Impulse Conduction
Receiving > sending nerve impluse
1 dendrite
2 cell body
3 axon hillock
4 trigger zone
5 axon
6 axon terminal
7 synapse
8 second neuron of effector
9 demyelinated neurons of the brain and spinal cord
neurons of the brain
Nervous System; communication within
graded potential starts in a sensory receptor in the skin
> graded potential triggers an action potential in a sensory neuron
> synapse in teh thalmus creates a graded potential followed by and action potential in a secondary interneuron which reaches the crerebral cortex
> primary interneuron forms an action potential and crosses to the oppposite side of hte brain
> at a synapse , a reesynapitic sensory neuron stimulates the postsymaptic interneuron to form a graded potential in its cell body
> a stimulul from the brain causes a graded potential and then a action potential for form in a upper motor neruon - which crosses back to the orginal side of the body
> in another synapse the neurotransmitter creates a graded potential which triggers an action potential in the lower motor neuron
> the lower motor neuron forms a neuromuscular synapse with the hand muscles which causes the muscles to contract as he writes the letter
Arachnoid mater - middle meninx; web like

Dura mater - tough, outer meninx

Subdural space - space filled with adipose tissue

pia mater - thin mininx intimate with spinal cord

subarachnoid space - contains cereb rospinal fluid

denticulate ligament - extension of pia mater attaching to dura
Spinal Cord structures
Gray matter
posterior median sulcus
gray commissure
posterior dorsal root
conus medullaris
anterior ventral root
posterior dorsal root ganglion
cauda equina
white matter
anterior gray horn
central canal
cervical enlargement
anterior median fissure
filum terminale
lumbar enlargement
gray matter
contain neuron cell bodies and unmyelinated processes
posterior median sulcus
shallow groove on dorsal side
gray commissure
connects right and left halves of gray matter in spinal cord
posterior dorsal root
snesory branch of spinal nerve entering spinal cord
conus medullaris
tapered end of spinal cord
anterior ventral root
motor branch of spinal nerve exiting spinal cord
posterior dorsal root ganglion
contains sensory neuron cell bodies
cauda equina
collection of spinal nerves that arise fro inferior end of spinal cord
white matter
contains myelinated axons
anterior gray horn
contains somatic motor neuron cell bodies
central canal
space in center of spinal cord that contains cerebrospinal fluid
cervical enlargement
bulge in spinal cord containg cell bodies of motor neurons suppplying upper limb
anterior median fissure
wide, deep groove on ventral side
filum terminale
extension of pia mater that attaches spinal cord to coccyx
lumbar enlargement
bulge in spinal cord at T9-T12
Polio virus
anterior ventral horn destroyed
out break following shingles and remains dorment;
posterior doral root ganglion
Neurons; present in spinal cord
multipolar neurons
Anterior ventral root
all three fiber types
Posterior dorsal root
class A and B fiber types
Spinal taps
lowest portion of spinal cord reaches L2. spinal taps are not done above this level to avoid damaging teh spinal cord with the needle
Sensory Impulses; enter spinal cord to brain
spinal nerve > posterior dorsal root ganglion > posterior dorsal root > posterior gray horn > white column
Motor Impulses; descend from brain and leave spinal cord
white column > anterior ventral gray horn > anterior ventral root > spinal nerve
connective tissue coverings
covers unmyelinated or meylinated axons
covers fascicles
covers nerves
Rami of spinal nerves
posterior dorsal rami
rami communicantes
anterior ventral rami
posterior dorsal rami
branch that serves the deep muscles and the skin of the back
rami communicantes
brances that belong to the sympathetic nervous system
anterior ventral rami
branch that forms nerves serving the limbs
Lumbar Nerve Plexus
Sacral Nerve Plexus
common fibular
Cervical Nerve Plexus
Brachial Nerve Plexus
Sciatic nerve
tibial nerve
common fibular peroneal nerve

supplies posterior thigh and most of the leg and foot
spinal nerves
31 pairs
Coccygeal nerves
1 pair
Anterior ventral ramus; severed
motor and sensory loss
Thoracic nerves
12 pairs
Femoral nerve
suppplies anterior thigh
Sacral nerves
5 pair
Lumbar nerves
5 pair
Posterior dorsal ramus; severed
functional losss is motor and sensory
Cervical Nerves
8 pair
supplies deltoid and teres minor muscles
Radial Nerve
supplies triceps brachii muscles and extensor digitorum lingus
supplies biceps brachii muscles
supplies diaphragm
Ulna nerve
supplies most hand muscles
Median Nerve
supplies flexor carpi radialis
Median Nerve; damage
inability to pornate forearm and loss of finger movement in digits 1-3
Raidal Nerve; damage
inability to extend wrist and fingers
Sciatic Nerve; damage
gluteal injection to avoid pain and injury caused by inadvertently striking a major nerve

greenstick fracture of tibia
Unlar Nerve; damage
affects medial part of hand, medial part of digit 3 and all of digits 4 & 5 tingles digits 3,4 5,
C 8; damage
does not have movement in most muscles of hand and digits 4-5
Obturator Nerve; damage
trouble adduction lower limbs
Common Fibular peroneal nerve; damage
dorsiflexing foot trouble
Axillary Nerve; pain
sunburn on skin over deltoid muscles
Ulnar Nerve; pain
splinter in digit 5 of hand
Reflex Arc
sensory receptor
sensory neuron
integrating center
motor neuron
Monosynaptic reflex arc
2 neurons
intergrating center
1 synapse
polysynaptic reflex arc
3 or more neurons
3 synapses containing two interneurons in the integrating center
Motor neuron
sensory neuron synapse with monosynaptic reflex arc
sensory neruon synapse with in a polysynaptic reflex arc
Reflexs; tests
Achilles; tibial nerve

Biceps; musculocutaneous nerve
Patellar; femoral nerve
Plantar Flexion reflex; tibial nerve
Triceps; radial nerve
Babinski's sign
NOT normal in adults
rapid, involuntary responsse ot stimulus
Somatic reflex
involve somatosendory receptors cutaneous receptors and porpricceptors
Visceral Reflex
involve interoceptors that detect changes in the internal environment
Cranial Reflex
involve crainial nerves
Spinal Reflexs
involve spinal nerves
Ipsilateral Reflex Arc
sensory receptors and effectors are on same side of body
Contralateral Reflex arc
sensory receptors and effectors are on opposites sides of body
Reciprocal innervation
stimulation of agonist muscles with the simultaneous inhibition of antagonish muscles
Flexor and crossed extensor reflex
walking along beach barefoot step on sharp object with right foot. Immediatly flex right leg and balance yourself by extneding left leg.......neurons
Motor neuron causing flexion > sensory neuron > interneuron synapsing with motor neurons > interneuron sending impulses up and down the spinal cord > motor neuron causing extension
Reflex Activity; modification
polysynaptic integrating centers have input form higher brain centers that modify the reflex
medulla oblongata
contains vital centers that regulate heartbeat, breathing , blood presssure, vomiting; coughing
smoothes and coordinates skilled skeletal muscle movement; also posture and balance or equilbrium
pineal gland
secretes melatonin that controls the sleep wake cycles
controls and integrates the autonomic nervous system; reuulates hormones; emotional behavior; tempature; eating and drinking behavior
cerebral cortex
interprets sensory input; controls skilled skeletal muscle movements
is involved in emotional and intellectural porcesses
helps control breathing
conducts impulses to and from teh crebellum, midbrain, and medulla
relays all sensory input ot the cerebral cortex
invloved in skeletal muscle actions and memeory processing
Corpora Quadrigemina
coordinates visual and auditory reflexes
basal nuclei
coordinates gross automatic mucles movements
also involved i with limbic system
corpusl callosum
white fiber tracts communication between hemispheres
Choroid Plexus
sites of CSF formation
special tiny ccapillaries located in the walls of lateral ventricles, third and forth ventricles
Ependymal Cells
cells that line th ventricles have cilia that move CSF
Septum Pellucidum
two lateral ventricles are seperated by a thin membrane called the ___________
CSF cerebral spinal fluid
made at rate of 20 mL/ hr
Superior sagittal sinus
venous sinus that overlies the brain superiorly
Brain injury
--loss of vision = effect of blow to back of head
--loss of equilibrium = effect of alcohol
--cessation of breathing = effect of head injury (ie...from diving in a pool) that forces the dens into this area
--loss of pain localization in the shoulder = effect of a stroke
Cranial Nerves
Abducens VI
Accessory XI
Facial VII
Glossopharyngeal IX
Hypoglossal XII41