Early Europe and Colonial Americas
Terms in this set (47)
Catacomb of Priscilla. Rome, Italy. Late Antique Europe. 200-400. Excavated tufa and fresco.
Santa Sabina. Rome Italy. Late Antique Europe. c. 422-432 C.E. Brick and stone, wooden roof.
Form: Follows the trends found in other Early Christian Basilicas and is axially planned
-Clerestory windows which provided light which would have illuminated mosaics
-Nave arcade that focuses the attention on the apse through a rhythmic pattern
-the exterior is comprised of plain brick walls to avoid connotations with Pagan temples
Context: Once Christianity achieved imperial sponsorship under Constantine the need for churches exploded. The churches that were to be built had to meet Christian liturgy (requirements for public worship) and they needed to be a monumental setting to celebrate the Christian faith
Style: A modest version of Constantine's Vatican Basilica. Version of an Early Christian Church in Late Antiquity
Why/Meaning: Christians, once Constantine validated their religious faith in the Edict of Milan, began to build churches that reviled the accomplishments of pagan Rome.
Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well and Jacob Wrestling the Angel, from the Vienna Genesis. Early Byzantine Europe. Early sixth century C.E. Illuminated manuscript (tempera, gold, and silver on purple vellum)
Form: Two folios made of Vellum (calfskin) from the Vienna Genesis. Two episodes of the Rebecca Story appear on a single page. This method of story telling by showing multiple episodes on the same page is an ancient manner of pictorial story telling known as continuos narration.
Content: In the Folio depicting the story of Rebecca you see three episodes of the story of how Rebecca was chosen by Elizer to be Isaac's wife. The three episodes which depict Rebecca offering water to Elizer and his camels have no background and nothing to detract from them, placing all the focus on the story.
Context: Illuminated manuscripts were luxury arts for the wealthy during Late Antiquity ad the Middle Ages. Common in both Public and Private libraries. They became popular due to the creation of the Codex which was a book made out of pages called folios.
Style: Sumptuously painted because Vellum was found to be a far better surface to paint on then scrolls.
Why/Meaning: Illuminated manuscripts were helpful for those who lacked the ability to read the biblical stories that were also included on the folio because everything was depicted through images as well.
San Vitale. Ravenna, Italy. Early Byzantine Europe. c. 526-547 C.E. Brick, marble and stone veneer; mosaic.
Form: dome covers the smaller of two concentric octagons
Content: central-plan Early Christian church
Context: constructed by a Catholic Bishop; sponsored by a Greek banker
Style: Roman elements (dome, doorways) with Byzantine elements (polygonal apse, capitals, brick exterior)
Why: built to honor a 2nd century Christian martyr
Meaning: Ravenna's most architecturally significant building
Hagia Sophia. Constantinople (Istanbul). Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus. 532-537 C.E. Brick and ceramic elements with stone and mosaic veneer.
Form: four triangular pendentives support the transition from the circular dome to the rectangular base of the structure and allow the weight to press downwards; small windows allow light to flood the interior of the church
Content: Early Byzantine cathedral; epitome of Justinian architecture
Context: built to celebrate Justinian's victory over the rioting masses
Style: Byzantine style architecture; fuses vertical orientation of a central-plan building with the longitudinal orientation of a basilica; interior Islamic calligraphic roundels contrast the elaborate Christian mosaics
Why: commissioned by Justinian as the principal setting for Byzantine imperial ceremonies; attempt to gain popularity and promote Christianity
Meaning: symbol of dominance and unity and of church and state in Constantinople
Pair of Merovingian looped Fibulae - Made of bronze, silver, or gold
Mid-sixth century C.E Silver gilt worked in filigree, inlays of garnets/stones
-Decorative pins that the Romans wore
-Sometimes incorporated inlaid precious or semiprecious stones
-Conveys that everyday functional objects were treated as art objects. Art&function.
Virgin (Theotokos) and Child between Saints Theodore and George. Early Byzantine Europe. Sixth or early seventh century C.E. Encaustic on wood.
Form: small encaustic icon painting with gold leaf detailing
Content: Virgin (Theotokos) and Child flanked by two saints, Theodore and George, with two angels gazing upward to the hand of God
Context: icons became popular in Byzantium as a medium for spiritual connection
Style: Roman tradition of portrait painting on small wood panels; Byzantine Christian theme, frontality, two-dimensionality, and stoic-nature of subjects
Why: displayed in Saint Catherine's monastery at Mount Sinai for devotional practice
Meaning: evidence of the role of icon painting in private Christian worship in Byzantium
Lindisfarne Gospels: St. Matthew, cross-carpet page; St. Luke portrait page; St. Like incipit page. Early medieval (hiberno saxon) Europe. 700. Illuminated manuscript (ink, pigments, and gold on vellum).
Saint Matthew, folio
-Emphasis on figure & setting
-Classical not Byzantine
-An attempt at a naturalistic representation
-Not really what it looks like, artist rendered figure in patterns
-Caught between two traditions
Cross-inscribed carpet page, Lindisfarne Gospels
-Circle in the center of the cross
-Design on the outside conveys motion
-About the tension of opposites and the interweaving between the opposites
-Series of elongated animals
ST Luke Portrait page - Master Theodoric, (1360-64)
-Paint and Gold on Panel
-130 paintings of saints, all served as reliquaries
-emphaszied power by extending figures past frames
ST Luke Incipit Page
-First page of the gospel
-Often with adorned initials
-Contained the first lines of writing
Great Mosque. Cordoba. Spain. Umayyad. C. 785-786 C.E. Stone masonry.
Form: employed a two-story system of double-tiered arches in order to raise the roof to an appropriate height using short columns
Content: Islamic mosque with a hypostyle prayer hall featuring 36 piers and 514 columns; unique series of red and white horseshoe-shaped arches
Context: Abd al-Rahman I fled to Cordoba Spain in 750, where the Arabs had previously overthrown Christian Visigoths in 711, and founded the Spanish Umayyad Dynasty
Style: traditional Islamic architecture; horseshoe arches in the prayer hall are derived from Visigothic architecture remaining from the Christians that previously inhabited Cordoba; prayer hall was built by reusing ancient Roman columns
Why: Great Mosque was built as the cultural and spiritual center of the capital of the Umayyad Dynasty
Meaning: one of the oldest and largest structures in the Islamic West
Pyxis of al-Mughira. Umayyad. C. 968 C.E. Ivory.
Form: small cylindrical box with a hemispherical lid carved out of ivory by an artisan
Content: decorated with hunting motifs, vine scrolls and an Arabic inscription
Context: Muslim artisans produced a variety of small luxury arts to furnish Islamic mosques, homes or other sacred spaces during the 10th century
Style: early Roman ivory carving technique; decorations are Islamic subject matter
Why: coming of age gift to al-Mughira, the son of caliph Abd al-Rahman III
Meaning: testament to the Islamic culture's love of luxurious objects as decorative household objects
Church of Sainte-Foy. Conques, France. Romanesque Europe. Church: c. 1050- 1130 C.E.; Reliquary of Saint Foy: ninth century C.E., with later additions. Stone (architecture); stone and paint (tympanum); gold, silver, gemstones, and enamel over wood (reliquary).
Subject: A bejeweled figural sculpture that contained the relics of Saint Faith.
Context: People on pilgrimages would contribute their jewels in order to stay in the church on the way. Relics of martyrs were believed to have the power to heal the body and the soul. The martyr wears a ancient roman parade helmet.
Form: Made out of valuable gemstones and metals, the cameos on the reliquary comes from pilgrims. Meaning: This reliquary emphasizes the importance of relics within romanesque churches and how it effects romanesque
Bayeux Tapestry. Romanesque Europe (English or Norman). c. 1066-1080 C.E. Embroidery on linen.
Subject: A frieze like pictorial narrative of King Edward's funeral procession, William being crowned King of England and the battle of Hastings.
Context: The tapestry historically dated the current events at the time.
Style: Obtains characteristic motifs of Greco-roman battle scenes with distorted bodies. Romanesque linear patterning and flat colors.
Form: Wool sewn on linen. 20 inches high and 230 feet long Meaning: The most famous work of english romanesque art. Similar to Trajan's column it is the conquerer's version of history, a proclamation of national pride.
Chartres Cathedral.Chartres,France.Gothic Europe.Originalconstructionc.1145 - 1155 CE, Lime stone, Stained Glass
- 1155 CE, Lime stone, Stained Glass (Figure 13-5)
- West façade → royal portal
- inspiredbyportalatSaintDenis (decoratedwitholdtestamentfigures onallthree portals)
- Royal Portal→ named so due to figues of queens and kings decorate the door
- Subject and Composition:
oCapitals formafreize-likelinkacross threeportals:unitethethreeportals withlives of Virginand Christ → proclaimpower and authority of Christ
o Right portal:
• Archivolts: personification of liberal arts → celebrate classical revival of 12th century, symbolize knowledge
o Central Portal
• Tympanum: second coming of Christ, surrounded by apostles and 4 evangelist
o Left Portal:
• Tympanum: Christ ascend to heaven
• Archivolt: signs of zodiac and scenes representing different labors of the months of the year
- Maryassumes acentralroleintheprogram→reflectCultofMary
o Cult reached a high point during gothic period
o Represented as queenof heaven→ rise of status
2. 60. Chartres Cathedral, Reconstructed c. 1194 - 1220 CE (Figure 13-33)
- Destroyed by fire in1194, Fire started at the crypt onthe east end(underground tomb for royals)
o Virgin's mantle survived → people took it as a omento build another churchonthe same spot
o Kept the survived west and east part → restricted the parameter, have to built taller
• clerestory → lancets + oculus
• nave arcade, triforium, clerestory
o plan→ new organization
• abandoned alternate support system
• four part vault
• the intersecting arch only covered one arch → huge number of arches → rhythmic patternto invoke visionof fluent movement
o first to have flying buttresses planned → eliminate the tribune
• allowed stained glass windows
•resolving thewalls,replacing withstainedglass
- Significance :
o Firsthighgothic structure
o elevation+ plan→ becomes the formula for highgothic structure
DedicationPagewithBlancheofCastileandKing Louis IXofFrance,Scenes fromthe Apocalypse fromBibles moralisees. Gothic Europe. C. 1225 - 1245 CE.Illuminated manuscript (ink, tempera and gold left onvellum)
- Blanche of Castile, King Louis IX's mother, commissioned the moralized bible for her son
o Blanche and Louis enthroned under three part arch and mini cityscape
• Similar to architectural canopy Beau Dieu
o Blanche instructing Louis
• She was in power before Louis turned 18
o Secular queen's power rise as Mary's power rose
o Below: Older clergyman instructe the scribe → already divided the page into two columns → typical book layout of the period
- Dedicationpage composition
o Background: gold → costly, Byzantium
o Page of circular frames → inspired by gothic rose windows
RottegenPieta.Late medievalEurope.c.1300 - 1325 CE.Painted Wood (Figure 13- 50)
- Painted woodenstatuette
o Mary holds dead Christ in her laps
o Mary's face twisted withgrief,maternalpain
o The exaggerated wound onlimbs of Christ → expresses pain
o Exaggerationof emotionalism, increased interest of humanism→ continue the trend of emotions fromdeathofvirgin
o Parallel to Hellenist period in Greek Art
o Calls for emotional connection with the viewers
Arena (Scrovegni) Chapel, including Lamentation. Padua, Italy. Unknown architect; Giotto di Bondone (artist). Chapel: c. 1303 C.E.; Fresco: c. 1305. Brick (architecture) and fresco.
Form: architecture is perfect for art- 6 windows on south side illuminate the room, created in several sessions because buon fresco (true fresco) must be completed before the plaster dries
Content: 38 panels where Mary's parents=top, life and mission=middle, passion and resurrection=bottom,
Context: built by a banker in hopes of repenting from usury
Style: blue is a unifying color, last judgement covers west wall =cyclical, people are simple, weighty, sculpturesque and foreshortened: seen from at an angle, used Byzantine style in Italy aka "early scientific" (natural world must be observed before its understood), boldly foreshortened angles, first established use of chiaroscuro
Meaning: one of the most impressive complete Christian fresco cycles ever made, dramatic narrative meets holy lesson meets human experience
lhambra. Granada, Spain. Nasrid Dynasty. 1354-1391 C.E. Whitewashed adobe stucco, wood, tile, paint and gilding.
Form: courtyard was constructed using whitewashed adobe to create a lightly colored, delicate stone finish with intricate Arabic calligraphy written on the walls
Content: palace consists of a colonnaded central courtyard (Court of Lions) with a fountain and 12 marble lions carrying a water basin on their backs
Context: Alhambra is a Moorish palace-fortress constructed by the Nasrid Dynasty in Granada, Spain; the Palace of the Lions is the main courtyard of the citadel
Style: blend of Moorish and Christian influences that form the Nasrid style; multilobed pointed arches are distinctly Islamic
Why: built as a palace to house the royal family of the Nasrid Dynasty
Meaning: lion fountain in the Court of the Lions is a rare instance of freestanding stone sculpture in the Islamic world and typically prohibited in a sacred setting
Annunciation Triptych (Merode Altarpiece). Workshop of Robert Campin. 1427-1432 C.E. Oil on wood.
Form: triptych with three separate panels that are unified by the similarities of their architectural settings (ex. the donors enter the central panel through a door to the house)
Content: Annunciation theme occupies the central panel where Mary is visited by Gabriel; in the right panel, Joseph works in his studio unaware of the visit
Context: in 15th century Flanders, small altarpieces for household prayer were common
Style: religious Flemish painting where objects are both symbolic and decorative
Why: commissioned by a wealthy merchant and his wife for private worship in their home; the donors are depicted in the left panel of the altarpiece through donor portraits
Meaning: growth of private works shows the integration of religious and secular concerns
Pazzi Chapel. Basilica di Santa Croce. Florence, Italy. Filippo Brunelleschi (architect). C. 1429-1461 C.E. Masonry.
Form: Brunelleschi places all emphasis on the dome-covered space at the heart of the building so that structure can have a centralized effect but with a rectangular base
Content: short barrel-vault sections brace the dome on two sides as incidental appendages and pendentives allow the circular dome to rest on the rectangular structure
Context: designed by Brunelleschi until his death and completed by a second architect
Style: inspired by early Roman architecture (Pantheon)
Why: erected by the Pazzi family as a gift to the Franciscan church of Santa Croce
Meaning: one of the first Renaissance buildings made as a central-plan structure
The Arnolfini Wedding Portrait. Jan van Eyck. 1434. Oil on wood.
Content: Portrait of Italian financier, Giovanni Arnolfini, and his wife.
Context: 15th Burgundy and Flanders (emerging capitalism, this area was expanding, Duke of Burgundy and other leaders were great patrons of art)
Style: Flemish portraiture, which included a lot of symbolism.
Form: The couple is standing in a bedroom and they appear to be posing for the portrait. The man is standing by the window and the woman is standing by the bed, symbolic of tradition gender roles. The artist includes a lot of symbolism to reinforce the lives of the commissioners and of a traditional marriage. The symbols include: dog=fidelity, shoes=sacred ground, red shoes=traditional wedding gift, oranges=fertility, candle=God, red bed=passion, wooden statue of St. Margaret=children, broom=domestic life
David. Donatello. C. 1440-1460 C.E. Bronze.
Form: relaxed classical contrapposto gives the statue the sensuous beauty of a nude Greek god with the muscles of a hero
Content: depicts the youthful biblical slayer of Goliath post-conquest with both masculine and feminine features
Context: in the Middle Ages, the clergy regarded nude statues as indecent, and nudity rarely appeared in art again until the Renaissance
Style: reinvention of the classical Greco-Roman nude
Why: commissioned for the courtyard of the Medici palace because David is the symbol of the Florentine Republic
Meaning: first example of a nude male figure in Renaissance statuary
Palazzo Rucellai. Florence, Italy. Leon Battista Alberti (architect). C. 1450 C.E. Stone, masonry.
Form: by adapting the Roman use of difference capital orders for each story, Alberti created the illusion that the structure becomes lighter toward the top
Content: use of different types of capitals for each story (Tuscan, composite and Corinthian), classical cornice crowns the building, pilasters define each story
Context: Alberti was a humanist who showed his appreciation for the classics in his work
Style: modeled the façade after the Roman Colosseum
Why: commissioned for the Rucellai family of Florence
Meaning: contemporary building skillfully infused with classical elements
Birth of Venus. Sandro Botticelli. C. 1484-1486 C.E. Tempera on canvas.
Form: use of patterning to create texture in the water, shell and draperies and create the sense of movement in a flat scene
Content: Venus (nude)
Context: the goddess Venus was born of the sea foam and carried on a cockleshell to Cyprus with the help of the winds
Style: elegant linear style and a flat background without atmospheric perspective
Why: commissioned by the Medici family and inspired by an Angelo Poliziano poem
Meaning: rare example of female nudity, but the power of the Medici and more accepting Renaissance culture allowed the display of nudity to go unchallenged
Madonna and Child with Two Angels. Fra Filippo Lippi. C. 1465 C.E. Tempera on wood.
Form: the figures have full faces and a three-dimensionality that shows use of live models
Content: Virgin sits in prayer and two angels support Christ as he reaches out to his mother; Mary is a beautiful, young mother with a transparent halo
Context: Fra Lippi was a former monk who developed painted less religious and more secular depictions of Mary and Jesus
Style: smooth delineation of forms is typical of Quattrocento Italian painting
Why: commission is unknown; painted as a tribute to Mary's divinity and motherhood
Meaning: humanization of a religious theme
Entombment of Christ. Jacopo da Pontormo. 1525-1528. Oil on wood.
Content: Entombment of Christ. Christ is being taken down from the cross and about to be put in the tomb.
Context: Mannerist style created as a reaction to the Renaissance in Italy
Style: Mannerism (artifice, distorting figures/limbs, unbalanced composition)
Form: The created a vertical composition, but left a void in the painting. Mary looks like she is falling back, while all the figures look elongated. The artist uses softer shades of blue and red.
"Last Supper" Leonardo da Vinci. c. 1494-1498 CE. Oil and tempera
a. Jesus sits with his 12 desiple, at a long table which is parallel to the entire composition. The general simplicity of the setting allows the view to focus on the dynamic between the figures.
b. Jesus' head focuses as the focal point of the composition, unifying the compositions multiple dimensions.
c. General schematic use of colour to not only balance, but to guide the viewer in addition to the theatrical gestures and postures of the figures.
d. Overall reveals Leonarido's ability to view/observe the present world and apply it to religious scenes ---> physiological complexity, and the inner workings of the human interior/soul.
"Adam and Eve" Albrecht Dürer. 1504 CE Engraving
a. Portrayed is Adam and Eve within the garden of Eden, where they have eaten from the tree of knowledge and beings the fall of man.
b. The engraving demonstrates Dürer's of the Vitruvian theory, based on distinct symmetry and ratios (idealized proportions).
c. The figures stand in a classical stance, as they are clearly distinguished from their complex background. Surrounding them are animals, each symbolizing various human characteristics/traits.
d. Reveals general desire to achieve perfection, in both technique and compositional construction.
"Sistine Chapel Ceiling and Altar Wall frescoes." Vatican City, Italy. Michaelangelo. 1508-1512
a. Commissioned by Julius Caesar the Pope, forced to accept assignment.
b. The ceiling consists of a sequence of narratives of the creation and the fall of mankind, from scenes from the old testament. Highlighting the basic themes between good and evil.
c. General concentration on the human figure, in both the spiritual and physical significance. Reveals his interest in the human nude, through the lacking background/ornamental embellishments. Emphasis on the volume, clear knowledge on capturing the three dimensionality of the figures ---> resemble statues, yet with elegance and fluidity.
"School of Athens" Raphael. 1509-1511 CE Fresco
a. Commissioned by Julius II, for the papal apartments within the Vatican. Presented images on four walls, symbolizing the four aspects of human knowledge: Theology, Law, Poetry and Philosophy. Depicted is the wall of Philosophy.
b. A joining/meeting of all the great known philosophers and scientists of the age, explaining the general themes and ideas of the Renaissance.
c. The setting and architecture mimics much of the work seen form Roman architecture .
d. Plato & Aristotle are the central figures, who are separated based on views. Plato: men concerned with the mysteries of the world. Aristotle: the scientists/philosophers concerned with the nature and natural human concerns.
e. Groups demonstrate fluidity, where their gestures and general composure mimmic the ideas of the Renaissance. Additionally, the themes of the period are noted throughout the composition, the idea of balance and measure, and general cohesion. Overall harmony and fluidity within the composition.
Isenheim altarpiece. Matthias Grunewald c. 1512-1516 C.E. Oil on wood.
•series of panels
•placed in a hospital; Saint Anthony hospital
◦images focused around death and disease
◦centered and focused on death
•painting is more horrific than near show
◦hands nailed to cross
◦skin is a disgusting dead looking color
◦fingers are sticking up in pain
•notion that he is a human too; this is his gruesome death
•4 parts and 4 individual scenes
◦brought them together with same tone and background
•red cloth stretches across canvus
◦color of passion, blood, violence
•Anthony is lying in the desert on the right side
•on the left side he is alive after he survived
Mosque of Selim II. Edirne, Turkey. Sinan (architect). 1568-1575 C.E. Brick and stone.
Form: mihrab is recessed into an apse-like alcove deep enough to allow window illumination from three sides, which Sinan skillfully constructs to make the interior tile panels sparkle
Content: mosque with a massive dome (larger than Hagia Sophia) with four minarets
Context: Edirne was the capital of the Ottoman Empire from 1367-1472
Style: Ottoman architectural style with influence from Byzantine architecture; interior arches resemble the Great Mosque of Cordoba
Why: royal palace of sultan Selim II
Meaning: the Ottomans considered the Mosque of Selim II proof that they outshone the Christian Byzantine emperors in architectural skill
Allegory of Law and Grace. Lucas Cranach the Elder c. 1530 C.E Woodcut and letterpress
•woodcut created for religious purposes
◦using new technology to convey a political/religious message
•in support of Lutheranism
◦portrayed Catholicism on the right side in a horrible light, and Lutheranism on the left side to convert people
•left side is negative
◦character next to the tree on either side is the same figure
◦Jesus is sitting in sky; judgement day—observing all the deeds of the people
▪deciding who to save and who to damn to hell
◦group of skeletal figures holding daggers and about to stab someone
•right is positive
◦figure next to tree is being showered with the holy spirit
◦very peaceful cycle/moment
▪multiple days put together
◦cycle of suffering and salvation
◦Jesus is up on cross, then he rises and steps on the skeletal figure
95. The Virgin of Guadalupe (Virgen de Guadalupe). Miguel González. 1698. Based on original. Basilica of Guadalupe, Mexico City. 16th century. Oil on wood, inlaid with mother-of-pearl.
Content: The central figure is the Virgen de Guadalupe, but in the surrounding roundels there are scenes showing her interactions with Juan Diego.
Context: Colonial period, Creolization of the Cult of the Virgen de Guadalupe.
Style: The artist used enonchados (tiny fragments of mother-of-pearl are put in a wooden canvas, then covered in a yellowish tint and thin glazes of paint) and was influenced by Asian art.
Form: The Virgin is in the center and at the bottom of this figure there is an eagle on top of a cactus with the Mexican coat of arms. 4 roundels surround the center figure, each with an angelic figure.
Frontispiece of the Codex Mendoza. Viceroyalty of New Spain. c. 1541-1542 C.E. Ink and color on paper
•produced for Charles V
•recounts the history of the Aztec Empire
•represents the landing of the eagle on a cactus; and founding of Tenochititlan
•house above the eagle; Templo Mayor
◦heart of the city
•lines through the manuscript; representing the division of Tenochtitlan into four quarters
•rack with dead skull
◦represents the sacrificial victims
3 part - plan, façade, ceiling fresco (Triumph of the Name of Jesus)
Artist: Giacomo de Vignola - architect of plan
Giacomo della Porta - architect of façade
Giovanni Battista Gaulli - artist of ceiling fresco
Era:Italian Baroque - Mannerism
16th century (Late Cinquecento)
Church designed for Jesuit order during Counter Reformation
Wide nave with side chapels, as opposed to aisles, provided space for grand processions
Consolidated the church into one great hall - accommodated the masses
Melding of Alberti's Santa Maria Novella and Michelangelo's Saint Peter's design
Very uniform horizontal pillars, culminate in a dramatic central bay
Ceiling fresco, Triumph of the Name of Jesus
18th century addition, still remains heavily ingrained in the Italian Baroque style
Monumental frescos contributed to creating transcended spiritual environments → served as propaganda for Counter Reformative purposes
Subject: Represents Jesus as barley visible in radiant light floating, In contrast sinners experience violent descend back to earth, Gilded architecture and shadows created by carvings enhance the fresco's illusionistic qualities → offer faithful glimpse of heaven
Hunters in the Snow. Pieter Bruegel the Elder. 1565 C.E. Oil on Wood
•one of a series of 6 paintings
◦illustrating the seasonal changes
•scene from a hunting trip
•there is a harmony to the scene
•seems as if we are standing next to the hunters
•shows figures within the landscape surrounded by a wintery cold
•hunters are returning home with hounds
◦women are building fires
◦people are skating
•perspective draws viewers diagonally through painting
•coming together as a community
97. Spaniard and Indian Produce a Mestizo. Attributed to Juan Rodríguez Juárez. 1715. Oil on canvas.
Content: Indigenous mother and European father with two children.
Context: The inter-ethnic mixing in New Spain.
Style: pinturas (caste paintings that try to capture reality)
Form: Very simple composition with mother on the left, two children in the middle, and father on the right. The mother is wearing a huipil (indigenous garments) and the father is wearing French/European style of clothes. Their garments show their race and culture.
Meaning: The painting suggests the discrimination and the notion in society at the time that being more European is better.
Calling of Saint Matthew
• Oil on canvas
• Italian Baroque
• Late 17th century
• Created for the Contarelli chapel in Rome
• Saint Matthew summons Levi the tax collector to a higher calling (St. Matthew sometimes depicted as wingman or tax collector)
• Mundane environment cloaked in mysterious shadow; highlighting Levi's face with intense chiaro scuro
Henri IV Receives the Portrait of Marie de' Medici
• Peter Paul Rubens
• Known for his allegorical representations
• Oil on canvas
• Northern European Baroque
• Late 17th century
• Rubens was commissioned to paint 21 large canvases glorifying Queen Marie de' Medici's life
• Hymenaios, god of marriage, comes down from the heavens to present Henry IV with a portrait of his future wife
• Example of man being integrated into a scene with Greek divinities
• Communicates the power of this marriage, literally a "match made in Heaven"
Self-Portrait with Saskia
• Rembrandt van Rijn
• Dutch artist focusing on "psychology of light"
• Etching on paper
• Northern European Baroque
• Mid 17th century
• Self-portrait of Rembrandt and his wife, Saskia, celebrating the joy of their marriage
• Example of a marriage portrait, as well
• Small glimpse into the daily life of the couple in their marriage
• Produced countless self-portraits depicting himself as different characters in each one (beggar, solider, religious figures)
San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane
o 3 part - plan, façade, dome
• Francesco Borromini
• Stone and stucco
• Italian Baroque
• Mid 17th century
o Hybrid of a Greek cross and an oval
o Walls pulsate to reverse the movement in the façade
o Dramatic lighting
o Church design flows from entrance to altar (contrasts to the "segmentation" present in many Renaissance churches)
o Wedged on a street corner
o Concept of contrasting against traditional ideals - front facade is no longer flat
• Curving, motion, pulsating, abstract
• Variation of an otherwise traditional, centrally-planned church
o A "deeply coffered" oval dome
o Appears as though it is floating on the light entering from the hidden windows at the base of the dome
Ecstasy of Saint Teresa
• Gianlorenzo Bernini
• Marble sculpture
• Gilt bronze of the Cornaro chapel in the Santa Maria della Vittoria
• Italian Baroque
• Mid 17th century
• Reflective of Bernini's versatile sculptural talent
• Different textures using the same medium
o Seen in the clouds, Saint Theresa's drapery, wings of the saint, smooth flesh
• Sculpture depicts Saint Theresa, a nun of the Spanish Counter Reformation, in her moment of conversion to Catholicism following the death of her father
• Sculpted portraits of members of the Cornaro family witness from balconies
• Example of Bernini's artistic argument against confining sculpture to its designated space
• Uses his knowledge of theater to dramatize this moment and expand the setting for his sculpture
• Scene takes place in a proscenium (part of the stage in front of the curtain)
98. The Tête à Tête, from Marriage à la Mode. William Hogarth. 1743. Oil on canvas.
Content: Depicts the beginning of a marriage between young viscounts.
Context: Hogarth was known for satirizing English life
Style: "Natural" Art which was a reaction to Rousseau's views that made people turn away from Rococo.
Form: Husband and wife are shown on chairs and the artist exaggerates how tired they are. In the other room in the background, there are paintings that show erotic scenes that give the painting a hint to sexual overtones. This is part of a series of 6 paintings and they were made to be prints.
• Diego Velázquez
• Oil on canvas
• Spanish Baroque
• Mid 17th century
• Setting: artist's studio in palace of Alcazar (official royal residence in Madrid)
• Noteworthy for its visual/narrative complexities
• Velasquez saw enablement not just for himself but also for his art
• Authentic realistic details and representations summarize the different degrees of reality
• Portrayed realities of image on canvas, mirror image, optical image, and of the two painted images
o This whole thing looks like a mirror reflecting the entire scene (artist painting everything he's seeing in this gigantic mirror)
• Painting himself in the mirror painting the scene
Woman Holding a Balance
• Jan Vermeer
• Oil on canvas
• Northern European Baroque
• Mid 17th century
• Vermeer using light to highlight a religious message
• Focuses on the woman holding a balance for weighing gold
o The scales are empty, thus in perfect balance and connection with each other
• This is how Saint Ignatius advised Catholics to lead their lives
• Balance their sins with virtuous behavior
The Palace at Versailles
• Jules Hardouin-Mansart
• Charles le Brun
• André le Nôtre
• Architecture -
• Masonry, stone, wood, iron, gold leaf
• Sculpture -
• Marble and bronze
• French Baroque
• Late 17th century
• Louis XIV commissioned the conversion of a royal hunting lodge into a great palace, garden, and satellite city to establish his power
• Satellite city
• Housed guards, military officials, government, servants
• All these establishments allowed him to consolidate his power
• Established 3 main avenues running through Versailles
o Their convergence point to Louis XIV's massive bedroom
• Most famous room called Galerie de Glaces
o Hall of Mirrors
o Tunnel like room with hundreds of mirrors on the walls
o Mirrors - favorite element of Baroque design
Fruit and Insects
Artist: Rachel Ruysch
Medium:Oil on wood
• Early 18th century
• Known for her precise, exact technique and intricate still live paintings
• Emphasis on nature and the outdoors
• Birds, insects, botany