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Final Exam - PSYC 218
Terms in this set (105)
Self-determination, curiosity, challenge, and effort (better)
rewards and punishments
What do humanistic and cognitive approaches stress?
the importance of intrinsic motivation in achievement
When are students motivated to learn?
They are given choices
Become absorbed in challenges that match their skills
Receive rewards that have informational value but not used for control
when do students' internal motivation and intrinsic interest in school tasks increase?
when they have opportunities to make choices and take responsibility for their learning
optimal experience in life
when does flow occur?
when people develop a sense of mastery, absorbed in a state of concentration while they engage in a activity, egged in challenges they find neither too difficult or too easy
what do psychologist say about extrinsic motivation?
that by itself is not a good strategy
Individuals are motivated to discover the underlying causes of their own performance and behavior
what are attributions?
perceived causes of outcomes
Task-oriented; instead of focusing on ability, they concentrate on learning strategies and process of achievement rather than the outcome
focused on winning, rather than on achievement outcome
cognitive view individuals develop for themselves
individuals believe that their qualities are carved in stone and cannot change
individuals believe their qualities can change and improve through their effort
belief that one can master a situation and productive favorable outcomes
Has much in common with mastery motivation, influences a student's choice of activities
What is a critical factor in whether or not adolescents achieve
Characteristics of high self-efficacy adolescents
Higher academic aspirations, Spent more time doing homework, More likely to associate learning activities with optimal experience than did their low self-efficacy counterparts
what determines how hard adolescents are willing to work?
how much they expect to accomplish
Expectations for students' success
beliefs how well they do on upcoming tasks, either in the immediate or long-term future
Three aspects of ability beliefs
Students' beliefs about how good they are at a particular activity
How good they are in comparison to others
How good they are in relation to their performance in other activities
how does fragile self-confidence develop?
from reaching low expectations
Managing time effectively, setting priorities, and being organized
selecting goals or outcomes, optimizing the means to achieve desired outcomes, and compensating for setbacks along the path to goal achievement
intention to accomplish something meaningful to one's self and to contribute something to the world beyond the self
doesn't involve any formal program - emerges out of an individuals existing relationships
Increasingly being advocated to improve achievement of secondary school and college students who are risk of failure
students from middle- and upper-income families fare better than their counterparts from low-income backgrounds in a host of achievement situations
American parents and education
much lower expectations for their children's education and achievement than Asian parents
Linked to low self-efficacy, low conscientiousness, distractibility, and low achievement
a vague, highly unpleasant feeling of fear and apprehension
successful students have moderate level of anxiety
Strategies for protecting self-worth
nonperformance, procrastination, setting unreachable goals
what does spending large amounts of time in paid work do?
limited developmental benefits for youth
For some it is associated with risky behavior and costs to physical health
improve the connection between school and work, increasingly has become part of effort to help youth make transition from school to employment
the nature of the transition from school to work is strongly influenced by ?
level of education
what plays an important role in career choices?
Exploration, decision making, and planning
what is positively related to identity achievement?
Career decidedness and planning
Which of Erikson's theory is outlined with identity development?
Vocational identity development plays a leading role in identity development
what is a channel of upward mobility for low-ses youth
Factors that influence parents' roles in adolescents' career development
Whether they work and enjoy their work
The way they present information about occupations and values
Experiences they provide adolescents
The behavior, patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a specific group of people that are passed on from generation to generation
The tendency to favor one's own group over other groups
what has changed how we think about cultures?
Technological advances in transportation,
Global interdependence is no longer a matter of choice. It is an inescapable reality
Comparison of a culture with one or more other cultures
Giving priority to personal goals rather than to group goals (typical of Americans)
Emphasizes values that serve the self, such as feeling good, personal distinction and achievement, and independence
Emphasizes values that serve the group by subordinating personal goals to preserve group:
Integrity, Interdependence of the members, Harmonious relationships
Are american students more likely to describe themselves with personal traits
how do chines students describe themselves?
identify themselves by their group
How do U.S. adolescents spend their time?
40% less time on schoolwork that East Asian adolescents
Spend free time using media and unstructured leisure activities
Rites of passage
Ceremonies or rituals that mark an individual's transition from one status to another
what are U.S. rites of passage?
graduation from high school and having sex
Socioeconomic status (SES)
A grouping of people with similar occupational, educational, and economic characteristics
Individuals with different SES have varying levels of power, influence, and prestige
What problems do adolescents from low-SES backgrounds face?
At risk for experiencing low achievement
Lower occupational attainment in adulthood
Adolescents from affluent families also face challenges, such as higher rates of substance abuse
what is poverty defined by?
what is the most common marker of the federal poverty threshold?
based on the estimated cost of food multiplied by 3
what percentage of children are in poverty?
Feminization of poverty
The fact that more women then men live in poverty
based on cultural heritage, nationality characteristics, race, religion, and language
what influences ethnic minority youth's life choices and plans?
Restricted occupational opportunities
Selecting characteristics of the U.S. culture that help them to survive and advance, while still retaining aspects of their culture of origin
Inferior characteristics on the part of the ethnic minority group
An unjustified negative attitude toward an individual because of the individual's membership in a group
media use for 11 - 14 year olds
More than 60 hours a week
media use for 15 - 18 year olds
almost 56 hours a week
is watching tv violence associated with aggressive behavior?
the more that adolescents watch TV the lower their school achievement is
Why does watching TV lower school school achievement?
interference, displacement, and self-defeating tastes/preferences
what new information society still relies on some basic technological competencies that adolescents need to develop?
Good communication skills
The ability to solve problems
To think deeply and creatively
To have positive attitudes
What biological factors are known to cause problems in adolescents?
genes, hormones, and the brain
what psychological factors are known to cause problems in adolescents?
Identity, personality traits, decision making, and self-control
what social factors are known to cause problems in adolescents?
family, peers, schools, socioeconomic status, poverty, and neighborhoods
the developmental psychology appraoch
Focuses on describing and exploring the developmental pathways of problems
what do researchers do in the developmental psychology approach?
seek to establish links between early precursors (such as risk factors and early experiences) and outcomes
what does a developmental pathway describe?
continuities and transformations in factors that influence outcomes
predispose children and adolescents to development problems, indicate an elevated probability of a problem outcome
help to shield children from developing problems
connections across domains over time to influence developmental pathways and outcomes
when individuals turn their problems inward
when individuals turn their problems outward
what factors predict adolescent problems?
poverty, ineffective parenting, and mental disorders
response of individuals to stressors, circumstances and events that threaten them and tax their coping abilities
sudden events or stimuli
physical, emotional, or psychosocial
what are the biggest hassles of college students?
wasting time, being lonely, and worrying about meeting high achievement standards
Negative consequences that result from contact between two distinctive cultural groups (immigrates)
Managing taxing circumstances, expending effort to solve life's problems, and seeking to master or reduce stress
what is success on coping linked to?
personal control, positive emotions, and personal resources, and the strategies used and on the context
strategy of squarely facing one's troubles and trying to solve them
Responding to stress in an emotional manner, especially by using defense mechanisms, it is sometimes adaptive
which coping strategy works better?
Over long term problem-focused coping usually works better than emotion-focused coping
ability to modify coping strategies to match the demands of the situation
Resilience is characterized by what factors?
Individual factors (good intellectual functioning)
Family factors (close relationship to a caring parent figure)
Extrafamilial factors (bonds to prosocial adults outside the family)
drugs that modify an individual's perceptual experiences and produce hallucinations, LSD. Marijuana
Drugs that increase the activity of the central nervous system
Most widely used stimulants are caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, and cocaine
drugs that slow down the central nervous system, bodily functions, and behavior
alcohol, barbiturates, and tranquilizers
induce sleep or reduce anxiety
Ordinary household products that are inhaled or sniffed to get high: glue, nail polish remover, and cleaning fluids use has decreased
Criminal Acts - Index
robbery aggravated assault, rape and homicide
less serious acts, running away, truancy, drinking
Psychiatric diagnostic category used when multiple behaviors occur over a 6-month period
early onset antisocial behavior
associated with more negative developmental outcomes before age 11
Antecedents of juvenile delinquency
Attempt to establish an identity
Family support is a key role
influence of siblings and peers
low ses and poor neighborhood
Major depressive disorder
Individual experiences a major depressive episode and depressed characteristics for at least two weeks or longer and daily functioning becomes impaired
rates of major depressive disorder
1.5-2.5% in school-age children and 15-20% for adolescents
The four problems that affect the largest number of adolescents
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