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Chapter 19 Blood Chemistry and Immunology
Blood chemistry testing involves the ________ ___________ of chemical substances in the blood.
Chemical substances being tested in blood chemistry are found where?
dissolved in the liquid portion of the blood (plasma)
Most blood chemistry tests require_____ for analysis and are performed where?
Serum, outside laboratory
How long do blood chemistry analyzers in the Dr office take to perform a test?
Calibration of a blood analyzer is typically performed using a calibration device called a _____.
How many levels of controls must be performed on a blood chemistry analyzer?
A level 1 control is also known as a _____ _____ _____ and produces what type of results?
low level control, results that fall below the reference range for the test.
A level 2 control is also known as a ____ ____ _____ and produces what type of result?
high level control, results that fall above the reference range for the test
What is insulin?
A hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas that is required for normal use of glucose in the body.
What is the patient prep for a FBGT?
Nothing to eat or drink except water for 12 hours before the test
What is the normal range for FBGT?
What is the patient prep for a 2-hour PPBGT?
Fast beginning at midnight before the test and continuing until breakfast
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) can be used to assist the physician with the Dx of what conditions?
pre-diabetes, diabetes, gestational diabetes, hypoglycemia, liver and adrenocortical dysfunction
What is the patient prep for an OGTT?
Consume 150 g of carbs for 3 days before then dont eat or drink except water during the test. No tobacco.
What are some side affects of severe hypoglycemia?
headache; pale, cold, and clammy skin; irrational speech or behavior; profuse perspiration; and fainting
What is hypoglycemia?
Condition in which glucose in the blood is abnormally low
Hypoglycemia presents with a FBG of _____ mg/dL or below.
What mg/dL is considered to be a High Glucose level?
High glucose levels can result in what conditions?
blindness, kidney disease, nerve damage, and circulation problems
What is the Hemoglobin A1c test used for?
supplies the physician with an assessment of the average amount of glucose in the blood over a 3 month period.
What is the recommended A1c level for a patient with diabetes?
less than 7%
What is cholesterol
white, waxy, fatlike substance (lipid) that is essential for normal functioning of the body.
Where is most of the cholesterol found and where is it produced?
circulating in the blood and manufactured by the liver
Cholesterol that comes from an individual's diet is known as?
High blood cholesterol may cause a condition known as _____________
What is atherosclerosis?
fatty deposits, or plaque, that builds up on the walls of the arteries.
What is a lipoprotein?
a complex molecule transported in the blood
How does LDL work in the body?
It picks up cholesterol from ingested fats and the liver and delivers it to blood vessels and muscles, where it is deposited in the cells
What is the desirable range for Total cholesterol?
less than 200 mg/dL
Total cholesterol levels between 200 and 239 are considered to be what?
High total cholesterol levels are greater than?
What is the number for HDL that is a risk factor for CAD in men?
less than 40 mg/dL
What is the number for HDL that is a risk factor for CAD in women?
less than 50 mg/dL
What is the desirable range for HDL in men?
40 and 50 mg/dL
What is the desirable rangew for HDL in women?
50 and 60 mg/dL
What is the optimal HDL?
higher than 60 mg/dL
What is the patient prep for triglyceride testing?
fast for at least 12 hours before blood specimen is collected
Normal triglyceride levels in the blood are?
less than 150 mg/dL
Borderline high triglyceride levels in the blood are?
150 to 199 mg/dL
High triglyceride levels in the blood are?
200 to 499 mg/dL
Very high triglyceride levels in the blood are?
500 mg/dL or higher
What is the BUN test?
Kidney function test
What is serology?
The scientificstudy of antigen and antibody reactions..
What is an Antigen?
substance that is capable of stimulating the formation of antibodies in an individual.
What are examples of antigens?
bacteria and viruses, bacterial toxins, allergens, and blood antigens.
What is an Antibody?
substance that is capable of combining with an antigen.
What is the combination of an antigen and antibody called
How do you detect the amount of circulating Rh antibodies in the blood?
Rh antibody titer test.
What is Infectious mononucleosis and what virus causes it?
An acute infectious disease caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
How is infectious mononucleosis transmitted?
Through direct oral contact
What are the symptoms of infectious mononucleosis?
mental and physical fatigue, fever, sore throat, severe weakness, headache, and swollen lymph nodes
What determines blood type?
Antigens on the surface of the RBC
Blood ______ consist of protein and are inherited through _______
If A and B antigens are present on the RBC the blood type is?
If neither A or B antigen is present on the RBC the blood type is?
What happens when a blood antigen and its corresponding antibody unite?
agglutination of RBC
What can happen if agglutination of RBC's occurs in vivo?
Serious and fatal
What antigens do type 0 blood contain?
If the blood type is 0, what antibodies appear in the plasma
A and B
If the blood type is AB what antibody appears in the plasma
If the blood type is 0 what antigens are present?
neither A or B