Did the Latinos population grow or shrink in the 1960s?
grew from 3 million to 9 million
How were Latinos treated by mainstream American society?
encountered ethnic prejudice and discrimination in jobs and housing
Who was Cesar Chavez, and what did he do to help Latinos?
he believed that farm workers had to unionize, and their strength would come in bargaining as a group 1962- est. the National Farm Workers Association which merged with the united farm workers organizing committee - he helped the union workers get higher wages and other benefits that denied them. He took the grape farmers on a strike and he even went on a 3 week fast and convinced consumers not to buy the grapes from the company
What sis Latino "brown power" movements advocate?
- schools to offer spanish speaking children classes that taught their own language and culture - Chicano students and teachers demanded smaller class sizes - mexican -americans wante chicano studies at colleges and universities
What did Latinos do to enhance their political power?
-some worked with a two party system with the Mexican American Political Association along with the House of Representatives - La Raza Unida ran Latino canitdates in five states and won races for mayor and other local positions on the school board -Federal Alliance of Land Grants which helped reclaim land taken from Mexican landholder in the 19th century
What was the American Indian Movement and what did it advocate?
-group against police brutality - protecting rights of large Native American Populations - demand for native americans fishing grounds, and burial sites be restored
How did this movement engage the government?
violently - Trail of Broken Treaties march on D.C. which protested the gov't's treaty violations throughout history -Native Americans belived that the Bereau of Indian Affairs was corrupt and they occupied the building destroying records and caused $2 mil in damages
What successes did Native Americans attain?
1972- congress passed the Indian Education Act 1975- Indian Self-Determination Act which gave tribes greater control over their own affiars and over their children's education
United Farm Workers Organizing Committee
"a labor union formed in 1966 to seek higher wages and better working conditions for Mexican-American farm workers in California."
La Raza Unida
a Latino political organization founded in 1970 by José Angel Gutiérrez."
American Indian Movement
a frequently militant organization that was formed in 1968 to work for Native American rights."
What kinds of discrimination did women encounter at their jobs in the 1960s?
-1 out of 3 women worked for wages
-jobs were considered as mens work and women could only work as clerical workers, domestic service, retail, social work, teaching, and nursing and they were still paid poorly
How did women's experiences in civil rights and anti-war protests increase awareness of sexism?
Men led most of the activites and women were assigned lesser roles, and when women protested this arraignment the men usually brushed them aside
What was the impact of Betty Friedan's book The Feminine Mystique?
the book captured the discontent that many women were feeling
What were the National Organization of Women's goals?
- creation of child care facilities -pressured the Equal Employment Opp. Commission to strictly ban gender discrimination when hiring - to declare sex-segregated job ads illegal
What factions formed in NOW?
-NY Radical Women
What was Roe v/Wade, and why was it important to women?
the case was to decide women's rights to have an abortion and the courts granted that women do have the right to choose an abortion during the first three months of pregnancy
What happened to the Equal Rights Amendment?
guaranteed that both men and women would enjoy the same rights under the law
How successful was the women's movement in expanding opportunities for women?
sacred many people - the ERA was not ratified by all 38 states by the deadline and went down in defeat
How did the women's movement change the way society looks at work and careers for women?
transformed women's conventional roles and their attitudes toward career and family -career opp. - governmental positions
author of THE FEMINE MYSTIQUE
the belief that women should have economic, political, and social equality with men
National Organization for Women (NOW)
to pursue women's goals and "to confront with concrete action the conditions which now prevent women from enjoying the equality of opportunity . . . which is their right as individual Americans and as human beings.
journalist, political activist, and ardent supporter of the women's liberation movement and made her voice heard on the subjects of feminism and equality
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
" a proposed and failed amendment to the U.S. Constitution that would have prohibited any government discrimination on the basis of sex."
along with conservative religious groups , political organizations, and many anti-feminisits , felt that the ERA would lead to a parade of horribles such as the drafting of women the end of laws protecting homemakers the end of a husbands res. to pro vide for his family and same sex marriages
How did members of the counterculture relate to mainstream culture?
materialism, technology, war had grown hollow
What were the primary components of hippie life?
-rock n' roll music - outrageous clothing -sexual license - illegal drugs: marijuana, LSD aka acid -Zen Buddism- which professed that one could attain enlightenment through mediation rather than reading scriptures
What happened to the counterculture?
What influence did hippies have on art and fashion?
1960's there was a rise in pop art which was characterized by bright, simple, commercial- looking images The Beatles emerged
What did rock music mean to hippies?
How did the counterculture change American social attitudes?
Many key movements were born of, or were advanced within, the counterculture of the 1960s. Each movement is relevant to the larger era. The most important stand alone, irrespective of the larger counterculture.
Why did conservatives object to the counterculture?
Since they feared it would threaten existing authority structures and traditional ways of life.
How did the counterculture help contribute to the conservative backlash?
Ground up and NOT dependency in mainstream America