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1.adoptive families
2.Donor Insemination families
3. gay and lesbian families conflict and divorce
5.remarriage and blended family

1.adoptive families

adoptees display more learning difficulties, more emotional problems, and higher rates of conduct disorders and delinquency
in canada, child welfare departments handle adoptions
-5-13 years olds adoptes revel that children are more curious and satisfied with information about their roots when share information or even contact with birth mothers

2.donor insemination (DI) families

12 years longitudinal study in England
-DI children at age 12 showed no behavioural problems and well adjusted on measures of emotional development, scholastic progress and peer relations as much as adoptive or naturally conceived peers and lesbian families

90% of adult children of lesbian mothers or gay fathers develop a heterosexual orientation
-they are cognitively, emotionally, and morally mature
-less gender typed
-boys from single-parent homes headed by mothers: less masculine whether homosexual or heterosexual
-knowledgeable about effective child-rearing techniques as heterosexual parents conflict and divorce (before the divorce)

marital discord have direct effects (putting them on edge emotional and undermining maturity of their behaviour) and indirect effects by undermining parental acceptance/sensitivity and quality of parent-child relationship


-custody was given to mothers for 60%, joint custody 30%, fathers 10%
-divorced women with children financial problems
-custodial mothers often become edgy, impatient and insensitive to children's needs. Frequently rely on coercive method
-noncustodial fathers becoming overpermissive and indulging during visits with their children
-younger, cognitively immature preschool and elementary school children: feel guilty and responsible for the breakup
-older children better understand personality conflicts and lack of caring/withdraw from family members and become more involved in undesirable activities
-boys display more overt behavioural problems
-boys fare better with fathers/girls in divorced families experience more covert distress/show sexual activity early in adolescence


common source of dissatisfaction: perceived loss of closeness with parents
-more likely to fear that their own marriages will be unhappy
-children in STABLE, single-parent homes usu. better adjusted than those who remain in conflict-ridden two parent families
-many of behaviour problems children display after a divorce are usu. evidient well before the divorce and more closely related to long-standing family conflict

remarriage and blended families

the more marital transitions elementary school children have experienced, poorer academic performance and less well adjusted they are

boys seem to benefit more than girls by gaining a stepfather

girls often view stepfathers as threats to their relationships with their mothers

stepmother into family system more disruptive than introduction of stepfather

1)fathers granted custody have close relations with children that stepmothers may disrupt
2)stepmothers play more active roles as behaviour monitors and disciplinarians
-more disruptive for girls, particularly if biological mother remains frequent contact

complex stepparent homes

each parent brings at least one biological child to the new family unit
-each parent show'' ownness effect'': displaying more warmth, support, and involvement in biological children

co-parenting much more common in simple stepparent homes, particularly before kid reaches adolescence

simple stepparent home: family consisting of a prent and his/her biological children and a stepparent

incidence of academic problems, sexual misconduct, and many other delinquent activities higher among adolescents from stepparent homes (particularly complex stepparent homes)


assaults on youths and children account for 24% of all assaults reported,


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