Unit 7 Drug Sources, Schedules, and Dosages
Terms in this set (29)
Pharmacology is the study of drugs; the science that is concerned with the history, origin, sources, physical and chemical properties, and uses of drugs and their effects on living organisms.
Because of the complexity of the subject, pharmacology has evolved into the following subdivisions:
Toxicology - The study of poisons; the science concerned with toxic substances.
It involves the study of the chemistry and pharmacological actions of substances and the establishment of antidotes, treatment, prevention, and methods for controlling exposure to harmful substances.
Therapeutic Use: Certain drugs, such as antihistamines, may be used in the treatment of an allergy or cold, to relieve the symptoms or to sustain the patient until other measures are instituted.
Diagnostic use: certain drugs, such as Ethiodol, are used in conjunction with radiology to allow the physician to pinpoint the location of a disease process.
The generic name is the drugs official name, and is descriptive of its chemical structure. It is assigned to the drug by the U.S. Adopted Names Council.
Sources of Drugs
Drugs are derived from animals, minerals, and plants; and are produced in laboratories utilizing chemical and biochemical processes.
The dried leaf of the purple foxglove plant is a source for digitalis, a cardiac glycoside used in the treatment of congestive heart failure.
Genetically Engineered Pharmaceuticals and Biologics
Recombinant technology can harness bacteria to make certain drugs or hormones.
This technique has been used to make human insulin using E.coli.
Examples of other drugs that have been produced using biotechnology are Activase, a tissue plasmingen activator that may be used for patients with heart attack,
acute ischemic strokes, and/or acute massive pulmonary embolism; Nutropin a human growth hormone; and pulmozyme for the management of cystic fibrosis.
Controlled Substances Act
The Controlled Substances Act controls the manufacure, importation, compounding, selling, dealing in, and giving away of drugs that have the potential for addiction and abuse.
These drugs, known as controlled substances, include opium and cocaine and their derivatives, narcotics, stimulants, and depressants.
The Drug Enforcement Administration of the U.S. Justice Department enorces the act, which is also known as the Comprehensive Drub Abuse Prevention and Control Act.
Under federal law, medical practitioners who prescribe, administer, or dispense controlled substances must register with the DEA, and physicians are required to renew their registration every three years.
Any person who handles or intend to handle controlled substances must obtain a registration issued by the DEA.
A unique number is assigned to the importer, exporter, manufacturer, distributor, hospital, pharmacy, practitioner, and researcher.
Exceptions include physicians who are interns, residents, from a foreign country or on the staff of a Veterans Administration facility, and who prescribe and dispense controlled substances using a special code under the registration of a hospital or other health care institution.
Schedule 1- marijuana
Schedule 2- Cocaine
Schedule 5- Drugs that have the lowest abuse potential of controlled substances. Actifed with codeine, Donnagel, Lomotil, Robitussin A-C syrup.
Conrolled substances must be kept separate from other drugs.
They must be placed in a double locked compartment , such as a securely locked box, or placed in a locked safe or a substantially constructed cabinet.
The number of employees with access to controlled substances must be kept to a minimum.
The person responsible for administering controlled subsances must keep the narcotic keys protected from possible misuse.
Drug References Resources
The product information insert that most manufacturesrs provide with their products.
This is a brief description of the drug, its clinical pharmacology, indications and usage, contraindications, warnings, precautions, drug interactions, adverse reactions, overdosage, dosage, and administration.
The package insert can be a valuable source of information about new drugs that might not be listed elsewhere.
This site includes a catalog of FDA approved ingredient, applicatio number, or use the alphabetical listing indicated on the home page and browse by drug name.
In addition to drug information, you will find FAQ, Instructions, a Glossry Drugs@FDA demo, and Wha's New in Drugs@FDA.
Details about drugs by FDA Application Number and contain drug product labels.
The dosage is the amount of medicine that is prescribed for administration.
It is determined by a physician or a qualified practitioner who considers the following factors in the decision:
Weight, sex, and age of the patient.
An initial dose is the first dose.
An average dose is the amount of medication proven most effective with minimum toxic effect.
A loading dose is an initial larger dose of a drug that may be given at the beginning of a course of treatment to bring the level of the drug to a therapeutic level in the body more rapidly.
A maintenance dose is the amount that will keep concentrations of the drug at a therapeutic level in the patients bloodstream.
A minimum dose is the smallest dose that will be effective.
A maximum dose is the largest amount of a medication that can be given safely to a patient.
A therapeutic dose is the amount needed to produce the desired effect.
A divided dose is a fractional portion administered at short intervals.
A unit dose is a premeasured amount of the medication, individually packaged on a per dose basis.
A cumulative dose is the summation of a drug present in the body after repeated medication.
A lethal dose is the amount of medication that could kill a patient.
A toxic dose is the amount of a drug that causes signs and symptoms of drug toxicity.