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Renaissance Tri 1 Final Review (background)

STUDY
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What are the dates of the Renaissance?
1485-1660
Definition of Renaissance?
Rebirth
What societies were the models?
Greece and Rome
What event began the Renaissance?
End of the War of Roses
What event ended the Renaissance?
Restoration (when Charles II came)
Why did Henry VIII have to marry Catherine of Aragon?
His older brother Arthur died
Who was a major transitional figure?
Henry VII
Who was the wife of Henry VII?
Elizabeth of York
What house was Henry VII? What house did he "create"?
Lancaster, Tudors
What church did Henry VIII start?
Church of England
Why did Henry VIII start the Church of England?
He wanted to divorce Catherine of Aragon
Who was the child of Catherine of Aragon and Henry VII?
Mary
What was the Oath of Supremacy?
Oath that anybody who wanted power in England had to take stating that they would be loyal to Henry VIII and the Church of England.
Who refused to sign the Oath of Supremacy and later became a saint?
Thomas Moore
Why was Henry VIII a Renaissance prince?
He could read and write, had lots of musical talent, was athletic and knew 3 languages
Wife's of Henry VIII in order.
Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Anne Cleaves, Catherine Howard, Catherine Parr
Who was Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn's child?
Elizabeth I
How and why did Anne Boleyn die?
Private killing on scaffold (beheaded) , married to king and accused of cheating on him considered treason.
Henry VIII third wife?
Jane Seymour
Who was the child of Jane Seymour and Henry VIII?
Edward VI
What were some of Jane's qualities that were so different from Anne Boleyn?
Quiet, sweet, unassuming, Henry VIII said she was the only one he ever loved.. (she was the first one to produce a male heir.)
Was Edward VI raised Catholic of Protestant?
Protestant
How did Jane Seymour die?
Died in childbirth
Who was Henry VII fourth wife?
Anne of Cleaves
How did Henry VIII and Anne of Cleaves get married?
Married the German princess, never met before they got married.
How long did the marriage between Henry VIII and Anne Cleaves last?
Divorced her right when he saw her
Wife number 5 of Henry VIII?
Catherine Howard
How did Catherine Howard die?
She cheated on Henry VIII and was beheaded
Characteristics of Catherine Howard
fun loving, silly, not very smart, liked to cheat on the King
Wife number 6?
Catherine Parr
How many wives did Henry VIII have in total?
6
Why was Catherine Parr such a good wife for Henry VIII?
She had already buried 2 husbands and knew how to take care of grumpy old men
Which wife of Henry VIII tried to bring all the children together?
Catherine Parr
Who did Catherine Parr marry after Henry VIII died?
Thomas Seymour
How did Catherine Parr's family die?
She died in childbirth, the baby died soon after birth, Thomas is eventually beheaded
How many children did Henry VIII have that survived?
3 (Mary, Edward VI, Elizabeth I)
Who took the throne after Henry VIII died?
Edward VI (his son)
Who took throne after Edward VI died?
Lady Jane Grey for 9 Days (then Mary)
How did Edward VI die?
Sick. T.B.
Mary was what religion?
Catholic
Who was Queen for 9 days between Edward VI and Mary?
Lady Jane Grey
Who put Lady Jane Grey up on the throne?
Protestants
Did Lady Jane Grey really want to be Queen?
No, she was just a pawn, and eventually beheaded with her husband.
Who did Mary marry?
Phillip of Spain (cousin of Mary)
What did Mary do? Why?
Burned Protestants at the stake, attempting to bring Catholicism back
Why was Mary known as "Bloody Mary"?
Because she burned and killed Protestants at the stake
Did Mary ever have a child?
No, she had hysterical pregnancies but later found out she had cancer
Who took the throne after Mary?
Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I's religion?
Protestant
Under what Queen was the height of the Renaissance?
Elizabeth I
What were the dates of the rise of the Renaissance?
1500-1558
What were the dates of the height of the Renaissance?
1558-1603
What were the dates of the decline of the Renaissance?
1603-1660
What were Elizabeth's I first four best policies?
Middle of the road Protestantism, public schools for all, new land, defeating the Spanish Armada
What was her biggest military success?
Defeating the Spanish Armada
Why did the British and Spanish go to war?
1) Because Elizabeth I had Mary Queen of Scots beheaded after Mary plotted against Elizabeth with the Catholics 2) piracy 3) Elizabeth denied King Phillip when he asked to marry her
What was a "nickname" for Elizabeth I?
The Virgin Queen
What age did Elizabeth I take the throne at?
25
What was another one of Elizabeth's strong points?
She supported theater, art, music, poetry (generally the arts this is the Renaissance.)
What year did Elizabeth I beat the Spanish Armada?
1588
How does Elizabeth the first die?
She loved sweets too much she got an abscess and died from it
Who became king after Elizabeth I?
James the VI of Scotland (Mary Queen of Scot's son, he later became James I of England)
What house is James I of England from?
Stuarts (he was the first)
A "nickname" for James I
Wisest fool in Christendom
Why was James I called "The Wisest Fool in Christendom?"
He had a speech impediment
What was the Gunpowder Plot of 1605?
Catholics tried to blow up parliament
Remember, Remember _____ (Day Gunpowder Plot took place)
the 5th of November
What is the 5th of November also called?
Guy Fawkes Day
Who was Guy Fawkes?
Guy who was supposed to light the fuse in the Gunpowder plot, and caught and tortured until he told the names of others involved. They were drawn and quartered as a warning to other Catholics.
Who succeeded James I?
Charles I
What controversial thing did Charles I do?
Dismissed parliament for 11 years
What was the long parliament?
The first time Charles I called parliament again, and they stripped his powers away and he called on the military starting the Civil War
What was one of Charles I issues?
His wife was French and Catholic
What was Charles I second issue?
He believed in the divine right of kings
Who were the two sides of the English Civil War?
Royalists vs. Puritans
In the English Civil War what else were the Puritans called?
Round heads, parliamentary forces
Why didn't the Puritans like the Church of England?
They didn't want it to look so Catholic.
What were the years of the Civil War?
1642-1649
Who was the leader of the Puritan side during the Civil War?
Oliver Cromwell
What kind of war was the Civil War?
pike warfare
How did Charles the I die?
He was beheaded at the end of the English Civil War
What did Oliver Cromwell call himself? What kind of government did he create?
He called himself a protectorate, and the government was a common wealth (no longer a monarchy)
What years was there common wealth in England?
1649-1660
Who was the second leader of common wealth in England?
Charles Cromwell (Oliver's son, not a good leader)
What was the Restoration?
Parliament invited Charles II back to rule England
How was Charles II different from the Puritan leaders before him?
He was lavish, had many illegitimate children