20 terms

Chapter 13: An Age of Expansionism

Explain the Results of the Webster-Ashburn Treaty
resolved the dispute over the boundary between Maine and the Canadian province of New Brunswick by giving over half of the territory to the US and established a definite northwestern boundary with Canada
Describe who encouraged US citizens to immigrate to Texas in the 1820's
Mexican officials (through Stephen F. Austin)
Name the major problems between US citizens in Texas & the Mexican government
- status of slavery
- the authority of the Catholic Church
- the unwillingness of the Anglo-American settlers to become Mexican citizens
- Mexican taxation on goods imported from the US
- Mexican threats of disfranchisement & expulsion of US immigrants
- failure of Mexican constitution to grant Texans local self-government
List the major campaigns of the Texas Revolution
- Battle of Gonzales - Stephen F. Austin defeats Mexican troops
- Siege of San Antonio - Texans force Mexican surrender
- Battle of the Alamo - Mexican troops under Santa Anna defeat and kill all Texas rebels
- Goliad massacre - Texas detachment captured and executed
- Battle of San Jacinto - Sam Houston defeats Santa Anna, ends war
Name the "Hero of San Jacinto"
Sam Houston
Describe what happens when Texas tried to enter the US in 1836
- Andrew Jackson & company denied immediate annexation because of domestic politics and fear of war with Mexico
- the most Congress & Jackson administration could offer was formal recognition of Texas sovereignty
Explain why the Mormons traveled to Utah
*- to escape religious persecution in the eastern states
- to establish Christ's pure church on Earth & practice their faith unmolested
- to carry out their special mission to convert the Native Americans
Describe how President Tyler annexed Texas
- teamed up w/ John Calhoun and launched a propaganda campaign based on reports that the British had design on Texas
- they denounced the British & pushed for immediate incorporation
- their campaign had too much association with the interests of the South and slavery, the Senate rejected the proposal
- they tried again through a joint resolution of both houses of congress, they adjourned w/ no decision
- Tyler's initiative made the future of Texas the central issue in the 1844 presidential campaign
Discuss the candidates & results of the presidential election of 1844
- James Polk (Dem) - protege of Andrew Jackson, had been Speaker of the House and governor of Tennessee, expansionist, ran on a platform calling for the simultaneous annexation of Texas & assertion of American claims to all of Oregon
- Henry Clay (Whig) - anti-expansionist but waffled on the issue of annexing Texas, cost him crucial support
- James Birney (Liberty) - secured victories in NY & Michigan, taking away enough votes from Clay to affect the outcome
Annexation of Texas
Name the winner of the presidential election of 1844
James Polk
Describe the basic tenets of Manifest Destiny
- God was on the side of American expansionism
- the idea implied in the phrase 'free development' was "extending the area of freedom"
- population growth required the outlet that territorial acquisitions would provide - economic opportunities
- "the US would someday occupy the entire North American continent"
Explain how the Oregon boundary question was solved
- the British government offered a revised treaty, splitting Oregon: US got Puget Sound, Britain got Vancouver
- Polk refused to make a decision & submitted it to the Senate for advice, they recommended its acceptance
Explain why the US went to war with Mexico in 1846
Mexico refused to:
- accept Texas' claim to territory between the Nueces River and the Rio Grande
- to sell additional lands (mainly New Mexico & California)
Name the major campaigns & US military leaders in the Mexican War
- Zachary Taylor: Northern Mexico; Matamoras, Monterry, Buena Vista
- John Fremont - California
- Stephen Kearny - Santa Fe, New Mexico
- General Winfield Scott - Mexico; Veracruz, Mexico City, Cerro Gordo defeated Santa Anna
Explain the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
- ceded New Mexico & California to the US for $15 million
- established the Rio Grande as border between US & Mexico
- promised US government would assume claims of American citizens against Mexico
- Mexican residents of the new territories would become US citizens
Name the chief US negotiator of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Nicholas P. Trist
Name the institution that transformed the US economy in the 1840's and 1850's
Explain how the railroads transformed the economy
- spurred development of domestic iron industry
- established new methods for financing business enterprise
- set precedent for government assistance in forms of land grants
Describe the results of the factory system
- mass production; efficient & continuous processes, rapid assembly
- supervised workforces doing simple & repetitive tasks
- payment of cash wages to workers
- affected manufacturing: textile, shoes, sewing machines, iron, clocks, agriculture tools (steel plow, mechanical reaper, seed drills, cultivators)
List the countries that produced large numbers of immigrants to the US in the 1840's & 1850's
Primary: Ireland & Germany
Secondary: Switzerland, Sweden, Norway, Netherlands