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9. Global Diseases
Terms in this set (80)
What is the name of genus for the malarial parasite?
What specific malarial species(s) is/are capable of going into a dormant stage?
- P. vivax
- P. ovale
What specific malarial species(s) is/are the most virulent?
What is the the name of the mosquito vector for malaria?
Anopheles spp (gambiae)
Where in the world is most affected by malaria?
Sub-Saharan areas (Africas)
How many people are currently at risk of contracting malaria?
How many deaths occurred as a result of malaria in 2012?
Name some examples of how malaria can be transmitted in non-endemic countries.
- Mosquito borne
- Blood transfusion
- Sexual contact
Name some reasons why malaria is a re-emerging disease.
- Changes in vector habits
- Increased travel/spread
- Drug resistance (quinines + chloroquines)
- Emergence of new breeding grounds
- Insufficient healthcare
- Rainfall pattern changes
- Increased migration/immigration
What are common symptoms of malaria?
Name some examples of anti-malarials.
What can be done to reduce breeding grounds of mosquitoes?
- Drain water basins
- Kill larvae
- Improve water developments
What type of endemic is the influenza virus associated with?
Winter Flu (annually)
What year did the Spanish flu outbreak occur?
What strain of influenza was responsible for the spanish flu outbreak?
What year did the Asian flu outbreak occur?
What strain of influenza was responsible for the Asian flu outbreak?
What year did the Hong Kong flu outbreak occur?
What strain of influenza responsible for the Hong Kong flu outbreak?
What year did the Swine flu outbreak occur?
What strain of influenza was responsible for the Swine flu outbreak occur?
Provide some information on influenza type A.
- Potentially severe illness
- Infects animals
- Changes genetic structure rapidly
Provide some information on influenza type B.
- Less severe illness
- Only infects humans
Provide some information on influenza type C.
- mild illness/asymptomatic
Name some examples of common symptoms of influenza.
How long it take to do a viral culture for influenza?
How long does it take to do a rapid viral culture for influenza?
How long does it take to do a immunofluorescence antibody labelling diagnostic for influenza?
How does it take to do a real time PCR for diagnosing for influenza?
Are there any vaccines for influenza?
No as the virus constantly and rapidly goes under antigenic shift meaning one years vaccine is useless the next year
Name some examples of malarial antivirals.
What does oseltamivir do?
It is a neuraminidase inhibitor that results in the viral particles being unable to be released
What does amantadine do?
It inhibits viral protein synthesis (protein M2) making the virus unable to reproduce
What does zanamivir do?
It is a neuraminidase inhibitor
What does AIDS stand for?
Acquired-immune deficiency syndrome
What does HIV stand for?
Human immunodeficiency virus
What specific cells does HIV target?
T helper cells (CD4+)
Describe the pathogenesis of HIV.
- Infects T helper cells (CD4+) which elicits apoptosis in the cell;
- These keeps occurring until the body is no longer able to keep up with the production of new T helper cells
What is the causative agent of smallpox?
When was smallpox eradicated?
How was smallpox eradicated?
What are some common symptoms of smallpox?
What is causative agent of hepatitis B?
Hepatitis B virus
How long does acute hepatitis B infections last?
Less than 6 months
What is the pathogenesis of hepatitis B?
Inflammation of the liver/cirrhosis
What are common symptoms of hepatitis B?
- Dank urine
- Loss of appetite
Name an example of antiviral used to treat hepatitis B.
Name some contributing factors to the occurrence of global diseases?
- Environmental factors (weather)
- Pathogen factors (resistance development/adaptations)
- Host factors (migration/behaviour)
- Government factors (insufficient healthcare)
What type of virus is the Ebolavirus?
Single stranded RNA (-)
What is the incubation period of ebola?
What is thought to be the origin of species of ebola?
How is ebola transmitted?
Direct bodily fluid contact
Name some common symptoms of ebola.
- Internal/external bleeding
Describe the pathogenicity of ebola
- Overwhelms protein synthesis of certain cells such as endothelial cells/phagocytes/hepatocytes;
- Allows the virus to evade the immune response and neutrophil
What year was the initial ebola outbreak?
One ebola outbreak in the Republic of Congo had a death rate of 90%. What year was this in?
What year was the worst outbreak of ebola that humanity had faced?
What does SARS stand for?
Severe acute respiratory syndrome
What is the the causative agent for SARS?
What type of virus is the SARS?
Single stranded RNA (+)
What was the year of the first SARS outbreak?
Where was the first SARS outbreak?
What was thought to be the original source of SARS?
Zoonotic origins. Markets selling animals such as palm civets, raccoon dog, etc.
Which cells does SARS virus target?
Endothelial cells and macrophages of the respiratory tract
Name some common examples of SARS symptoms.
- High fever
- Respiratory failure
What are some possible treatment methods for SARS?
- Supplement oxygen
- Negative pressure
What is the causative agent of tuberculosis?
What does MDRTB stand for?
Multidrug resistant tuberculosis
What does XDRTB stand for?
Extensively resistant tuberculosis
What are some common symptoms of TB?
- Respiratory issues
How is TB transferred?
What is an example of a reemerging disease in Japan?
Escherichia coli 0157:H7
What is an example of a reemerging disease in Scotland?
What is an example of a reemerging disease in Australia?
What is an example of a reemerging disease in West USA?
Whitewater arroyo virus
What is the causative agent of cholera?
How is cholera transmitted?
Post earthquake Haiti 2009, how many deaths were as a result of cholera?
What is the issue with a cholera vaccine?
Only provides an extra 25-50% immunity
Name some examples of factors that affect the spread of disease.
- Human demographics
- Microbial adaptation
- Human susceptibility
- Economic development
- Ecosystem change
This set is often in folders with...
1. Commensal Flora
2. Oral Microbiology
3. Healthcare Associated Infections (HCAIs)
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