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science study guide: matter

test date: Nov. 21 2011
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anything that has a mass and takes up space
matter
a fixed composition and distinct properties; can be a element or compound
substance
matter that has only 1 set of chemical and physical properties
pure substance
made up of 1 type of atom; a substance that cannot be decomposed into a simpler substances by any chemical or physical process
element
2 or more elements chemically bonded together; have properties that are different from the elements that make them up, can be further decomposed into simpler substances by chemical reaction
compound
a combination of 2 or more substances, each compound in the mixture retains its own set of chemical and physical properties; can be separated by physical means
mixture
indicates the same; same uniform appearance and composition throughout; cannot see different parts; a solution is a homogeneous mixture
homogeneous mixture
indicates the difference; uneven distribution of substances; a mixture that consists of physically distinct parts, each with different properties
heterogeneous
when water can be separated into hydrogen and oxygen
electrolysis
a characteristic of a substance that can be observed
property
can be observed without the identity of the substance
physical property
can be observed by changing the identity of the original substance; shows how substances can form new substances
chemical property
it is chemical reaction, identity changes
chemical change
a change in any physical property of a substance, but not in the substance itself; identity remains the same
physical change
when you use the physical properties to water to separate it from the salt
distillation process
when matter is neither created nor destroyed during the chemical change
law of conservation of mass
when the temperature increases
exothermic
when the temperature decreases
endothermic
atoms, hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, diamonds, graphite, gold, and helium
examples of elements
molecules, CO2 (carbon dioxide), H2O (water), (di-hydrogen oxide), NaCl (salt), C12H22O11 (sodium clouride), (sucrose) (sugar)
examples of compounds
copper and zinc, iron and salt
examples of mixtures
vinegar, saltwater, and bottled soft drink
examples of homogeneous
sand, granite, wood, milk, blood, and chicken noodle soup
examples of heterogeneous
color, shape, density (mass, volume), size, texture, melting point, and boiling point
examples of physical properties
flammability, reaction with oxygen, ability to rust, reaction with acid, base
examples of chemical properties
melting, boiling, breaking, malleability, and ductility
examples of physical changes
formation of gas, formation of solids or precipate, change in color, change in energy due to a change in temperature, production of odor
examples of chemical change
compound, heterogeneous mixture, and homogeneous mixture
what can you separate
chemical
what does a chemical formula and name represent